清江梯级发电与生态均衡优化调度研究
Optimizing Operation of the Qingjiang Cascaded Hydropower Stations: Balancing Power Generation and Ecological Regulation
投稿时间:2018-09-25  修订日期:2020-06-08
中文关键词:清江梯级  均衡调度  逐旬频率法  粒子群算法  评价指标
英文关键词:Qingjiang cascade hydropower stations  equilibrium operation  ten-day frequency calculation method  particle swarm optimization  evaluation index system
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51409152);三峡库区生态环境教育部工程研究中心开放基金课题(KF2019-13);“十三五”国家重点研发计划课题(2017YFC0405606)
作者单位E-mail
林伟 三峡大学水利与环境学院湖北 宜昌 443002上海勘测设计研究院有限公司上海 200335 linwei@sidri.com 
李英海 三峡大学水利与环境学院湖北 宜昌 443002三峡大学 三峡库区生态环境教育部工程研究中心湖北 宜昌 443002  
郭家力 三峡大学水利与环境学院湖北 宜昌 443002三峡大学 三峡库区生态环境教育部工程研究中心湖北 宜昌 443002  
徐 文 三峡大学水利与环境学院湖北 宜昌 443002三峡大学 三峡库区生态环境教育部工程研究中心湖北 宜昌 443002  
夏青青 三峡大学水利与环境学院湖北 宜昌 443002  
汪 利 三峡大学水利与环境学院湖北 宜昌 443002  
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中文摘要:
      目前梯级电站生态调度已成为长江大保护和流域环境保护的重要组成部分,同时各省市水利厅也先后制定了河流控制断面生态流量法案。本文以清江流域的水布垭、隔河岩、高坝洲三座梯级水电站为研究对象,以旬作为计算时段开展发电与生态均衡优化调度研究。首先采用逐旬频率计算法,确定清江梯级生态流量区间范围,进而在梯级发电调度的基础上,引入径流生态离差系数,建立发电与生态均衡优化调度模型,并提出了基于粒子群算法的模型解算方法,构建调度方案的发电与生态综合评价指标体系,对比分析清江梯级2008-2010年两种优化调度方案。结果表明,相比发电调度方案,均衡优化调度方案在梯级发电量减少1.85%的情况下,径流生态离差系数提高6.81%,梯级生态溢水量减少57.66亿m3,梯级生态缺水量减少3.92亿m3。进一步以2010年两种方案下调度结果为例展开讨论,水布垭均衡调度方案在0~11旬下泄流量更接近适宜上限流量,减少了生态溢水量;在12~15旬下泄流量都落在适宜流量范围内,减少了生态缺水量;在16~36旬中仅23旬出现一次生态溢水。隔河岩发电调度方案在11~14旬出现连续性的生态缺水,在15旬、25旬、29旬出现3次生态溢水。高坝洲均衡调度方案出力更稳定,保持高水位运行,水位大幅波动少;其发电调度方案却在8旬、15旬、25旬出现了3次生态溢水,且在12~14旬出现连续性的生态缺水。本文所提出的均衡优化调度方案有效的改善了水利工程胁迫下的河道生态流量环境,为梯级联合生态调度提供科学依据与决策支持。
英文摘要:
      Qingjiang River is the second largest tributary of the Yangtze River downstream of Three Gorges and three cascaded hydropower stations, Shuibuya, Geheyan and Gaobazhou, are operating on the river. Ecological operation of cascaded hydropower stations has become an important part of Yangtze River protection and river basin conservation. Additionally, water conservancy departments from provinces and cities have issued ecological flow requirements for numerous reaches of the river. To address these developments, we studied operating conditions that optimize the balance between power generation and ecological regulation for the three cascaded hydropower stations using ten day test periods. Firstly, a ten-day frequency method was used to calculate the ecological flow range for Qingjiang River. Then, an equilibrium operation model was developed for the cascaded dams to optimize the balance between power generation and ecological flow. The model uses an runoff deviation coefficient and is based on a particle swarm optimization method. A comprehensive index system of operation schemes was used to evaluate the model. Finally, we compared an operation scheme that considered only power generation with the equilibrium [optimized] operation scheme using historical ten-day runoff data (2008-2010). Compared with the power generation operating scheme, the equilibrium operation increased the runoff dispersion coefficient by 6.81%, reduced cascade overflow by 5.766 billion m3 and reduced cascade water shortage by 392 million m3. Cascade power generation decreased only slightly, by 1.85%. The optimized operation scheme was examined greater detail by looking at the cascade operation during each 10-day period,of 2010. Discharge from the Shuibuya hydropower station under the optimized operation scheme was close to the upper flow limit from period 1 to 11, and ecological overflows decreased. The discharge was in the appropriate flow range from period 12 to 15, and ecological water shortages decreased. From period 16 to 36, ecological overflows occurred only in period 23. Under the power generation only scheme, an ecological water shortage occurred in periods 11 to 14 at the Geheyan hydropower station and overflows occurred in periods 15, 25 and 29. Under the optimized operation scheme, Gaobazhou hydropower station maintained a high water level, with less fluctuation and a more stable power output. But with the power generation scheme, ecological overflow occurred in periods 8, 15 and 25, and a water shortage occurred from period 12 to 14. In conclusion, the proposed optimal equilibrium scheme improved the ecological flow environment of the river under the pressure of water conservancy projects and provides a scientific basis and decision support for operating cascaded hydropower projects more ecologically.
林伟,李英海,郭家力,徐 文,夏青青,汪 利.2020.清江梯级发电与生态均衡优化调度研究[J].水生态学杂志,41(3):9-16.
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