大渡河乐山段鱼类群落结构特征研究
Fish Community Structure in the Leshan Section of Dadu River
投稿时间:2018-08-15  修订日期:2020-04-24
中文关键词:大渡河  鱼类群落结构  优势种  生物多样性
英文关键词:Dadu River  fish community structure  dominant species  biodiversity
基金项目:水利部公益性行业科研专项项目(200901009),中国水利水电建设集团公司科研项目(AG2012/S-46-A);中国水利水电建设集团公司监测项目(AG2014/S-83)
作者单位E-mail
邓旭艳 中国水电建设集团四川电力开发有限公司四川 成都 610041 274471566@qq.com 
王文君 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室湖北 武汉 430079  
方艳红 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室湖北 武汉 430079  
黄道明 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室湖北 武汉 430079  
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中文摘要:
      为了解大渡河乐山段鱼类群落结构和多样性的分布特征,2015年11月至2017年4月,在大渡河河口乐山市沙湾区至市中区长约30 km的河网段布置7个采样断面,采用定置刺网、地笼和电捕等方法,进行了4次鱼类资源调查。利用Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H′)、Pielou均匀度指数(J′)、Margalef丰富度指数(R)分析大渡河乐山段鱼类群落的生物多样性,通过IRI指数研究鱼类物种优势度。结果表明,调查期间共采集到57种鱼类,隶属于5目、13科、48属;其中,鲤形目(38种)占总数的66.67%;鲇形目(13种)占22.81%;鲈形目(4种)占7.02%;合鳃鱼目(1种)和鳉形目(1种)均占1.75%。该区域鱼类群落以杂食性、底栖、适应缓流生境的种类为主。根据IRI指数分析,安谷电站坝上库区河段鱼类优势种有7种,坝下河段有8种,生态河道有8种。鱼类群落多样性指数以安谷电站坝下河段最高。生态类群分析表明,安谷电站坝上与坝下江段的鱼类群落结构差异显著,渔获物个体小型化趋势明显。目前的水电开发和过度捕捞是影响大渡河乐山段鱼类资源最主要的胁迫因素。
英文摘要:
      Dadu River, in the upper Yangtze River system, is the largest tributary of Minjiang River. The Leshan section of the Dadu River is the fish migration channel between the upper and lower Dadu River (between Qingyi River and Minjiang River) and is inhabited by many of the Dadu River fish species. Angu hydropower station, located in the Leshan section, began operating in August, 2015, and construction and operation of Angu hydropower station has altered fish habitat. In this study, we explored the spatial distribution and diversity of the fish community in the Leshan section and analyzed the effect of Angu hydropower station on fish community structure. The objectives were to protect and restore fish biodiversity in Dadu River and provide a reference for conserving the fish community in the Leshan section. A field survey of fish stock was carried out across seven transects on four occasions, from November 2015 to April 2017, along 30 km of the Leshan section. Fish samples were collected by means of fixed gill nets, bottom cages and electrofishing. The length, weight and species of all specimens collected were determined. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H′), Pielou evenness index (J′) and Margalef richness index (R) were used to characterize fish community diversity.The index of relative importance (IRI) was used to describe species dominance.A total of 57 fish species were collected, belonging to 48 genera, 13 families and 5 orders. Cypriniformes (38 species) was the dominant taxa, accounting for 66.67% of the total fish species, followed by Siluriformes (13 species, 22.81%), Perciformes (4 species, 7.02%), Synbranchiformes (1 species, 1.75%) and Cyprinodontiformes (1 species, 1.75%). Ecological guilds in the fish community included benthic, omnivorous and species preferring slow water habitats. The IRI index revealed 7 dominant species above Angu dam and 8 dominant species below the dam. The fish community structure was significantly different in the river sections above and below the dam, with fish community diversity higher below the dam. Further, a tendency towards miniaturization of natural fish resources was evident in the river section investigated. Hydroelectric development and overfishing were identified as the major threats to fish resources in the Leshan section of Dadu River.
邓旭艳,王文君,方艳红,黄道明.2020.大渡河乐山段鱼类群落结构特征研究[J].水生态学杂志,41(2):53-61.
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