长江中游宜昌至嘉鱼江段鳊食性研究
Feeding Habits of Parabramis pekinensis (White Bream) in the Yichang-Jiayu Reach of the Middle Yangtze River
投稿时间:2018-07-08  修订日期:2019-11-13
中文关键词:  食性  浮游植物  季节变化  长江中游
英文关键词:Parabramis pekinensis  feeding habits  phytoplankton  seasonal variation  middle reaches of the Yangtze River
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51579247,31602161);农业部项目“长江中上游重要渔业水域主要经济物种产卵场及洄游通道调查”
作者单位E-mail
杨浩 中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所武汉 430223华中农业大学水产学院武汉 430070 1127343150@qq.com 
朱峰跃 中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所武汉 430223  
高 雷 中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所武汉 430223  
潘文杰 中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所武汉 430223西南大学动物科技学院水产系重庆 400715  
陈大庆 中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所武汉 430223  
段辛斌 中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所武汉 430223  
刘绍平 中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所武汉 430223  
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中文摘要:
      研究鳊的摄食特征,为长江中游鳊资源的保护提供基础数据支撑。2016年9月至2017年8月在长江中游宜昌、荆州和嘉鱼江段使用三层流刺网进行了季度采样,对鳊肠含物的种类组成及时空差异进行分析。共采集鳊样本213尾,体长14.5~38.0 cm、体重67.0~978.1 g,其中肠道有食物的样本182尾。结果显示:在宜昌、荆州和嘉鱼江段,鳊全年摄食,且摄食强度存在明显季节变化,鳊夏季肠道充塞度最高为5级,2、3级占52.42%;冬季最高为3级,0、1级占58.82%;春季和秋季最高充塞度均为4级,分别以1级、2级为主;鳊夏季摄食率最高(92.23%),略高于秋季(88.37%),明显高于春季(78.79%)和冬季(67.65%);其充塞度以夏季最高,冬季最低。饵料生物主要为水生植物和浮游植物,其中浮游植物以颗粒直链藻(Melosira granulata)、变异直链藻(Melosira varians)和粗壮双菱藻(Surirella robusta)为优势种群。饵料生物种类组成在不同江段无明显差异,但呈现明显的季节变化,冬季以浮游植物出现率最高(100.00%),其他季节均以水生植物碎片出现率最高。建议在航道整治等涉水工程建设时,应当注重保护水生维管束植物及浮游植物,以保护鳊等草食性鱼类的饵料生物来源。
英文摘要:
      Parabramis pekinensis is an important commercial fish inhabiting the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. In this study, we investigated the feeding habits of P. pekinensis, aiming to provide basic data to support conservation of wild populations. From September 2016 to August 2017, fish were sampled seasonally using gill nets near Yichang, Jingzhou and Jiayu. Food organism composition and spatiotemporal variations in food and feeding intensity were determined by analyzing intestinal content. A total of 213 specimens (body length, 14.5-38.0 cm; body weight, 67.0-978.1 g) were collected and 182 individuals had food in their intestine. White bream feed year-round and feeding intensity exhibited significant seasonal variation. The intestinal fullness index was highest in summer and lowest in winter. In summer, the highest fullness rank was Grade 5, and specimens with fullness ranks of Grade 2 and 3 accounted for 52.42% of the fish collected. In winter, the highest fullness rank was Grade 3 and specimens with a fullness rank of Grade 0 and 1 accounted for 58.82% of the total. In spring and autumn, the highest fullness rank was Grade 4, with a fullness rank of Grade 1 most common in spring and Grade 2 in autumn. The feeding intensity of white breams was highest in summer (92.23%), slightly higher than that in autumn (88.37%), and significantly higher than in the spring (78.79%) and winter (67.65%). The primary food sources of white bream were aquatic plant fragments and phytoplankton. The three dominant species of phytoplankton that P. pekinensis fed upon were all diatoms: Melosira granulata, Melosira varians and Surirella robusta. Species composition of food organisms for white bream did not differ significantly among sampling location, but there was significant seasonal variation. The occurrence rate of phytoplankton was the highest in winter (100.00%), while the occurrence rate of aquatic plant fragments was the highest in the other three seasons. We recommend enhanced protection of aquatic plants and phytoplankton during construction of water-related projects to better maintain the food sources of herbivorous fish.
杨浩,朱峰跃,高 雷,潘文杰,陈大庆,段辛斌,刘绍平.2019.长江中游宜昌至嘉鱼江段鳊食性研究[J].水生态学杂志,40(6):86-91.
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