赣江下游丰城江段鱼类早期资源现状调查
Status of Early Stage Fish Resources in the Fengcheng Section of Lower Ganjiang River
投稿时间:2018-07-08  修订日期:2020-11-26
中文关键词:赣江下游  丰城江段  鱼类早期资源  四大家鱼  产卵场
英文关键词:lower Ganjiang River  Fengcheng section  early stage fish resources  four major Chinese carps  spawning grounds
基金项目:国家重点研究计划(2018YFD0900801);国家自然科学基金(51579247, 31602161);农业部项目“长江中上游重要渔业水域主要经济物种产卵场及洄游通道调查”
作者单位E-mail
郭琴 中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所湖北 武汉 430223南昌大学生命科学学院江西 南昌 330031 474170541@qq.com 
高 雷 中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所湖北 武汉 430223  
潘文杰 中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所湖北 武汉 430223  
欧阳珊 南昌大学生命科学学院江西 南昌 330031  
陈大庆 中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所湖北 武汉 430223  
刘绍平 中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所湖北 武汉 430223  
段辛斌 中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所湖北 武汉 430223  
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中文摘要:
      在赣江江段开展鱼类早期资源调查,可为赣江鱼类资源保护以及水利工程生态调度提供科学依据。2017年5-7月,在赣江丰城江段使用圆锥网采集鱼卵和弶网采集仔鱼,对早期资源物种组成、产卵规模和产卵场进行分析。结果显示,调查期间共采集鱼卵11215粒,仔鱼12645尾,隶属于4目、8科、36种,其中产漂流性卵鱼类24种。估算调查期间通过丰城江段卵苗径流量为66.66×108 粒(尾),其中鱼卵径流量63.84×108粒,鱼苗径流量2.82×108尾;“四大家鱼”卵苗径流量为0.11×108粒(尾),其中鱼卵径流量0.07×108粒,鱼苗径流量0.04×108尾。调查期间出现3次产卵高峰,集中在6月上、中旬。各类群鱼卵数量呈现出不同的时间动态,银鮈(Squalidus argentatus)主要出现在5月,银鲴(Xenocypris argentea)、鳊(Parabramis pekinensis)、赤眼鳟(Squaliobarbus curriculus)以及“四大家鱼”等主要出现在6月。研究表明,峡江水利枢纽运行后,邻近峡江水利枢纽的巴邱“四大家鱼”产卵场消失,但其下游的仁和、新干产卵场保存较完整,在离坝较远的大洋洲镇江段新调查到一处“四大家鱼”产卵场。建议开展生态调度及增殖放流活动,以保护赣江鱼类资源。
英文摘要:
      The Ganjiang River is one of the five largest rivers flowing into Poyang Lake. It provides important habitat and breeding grounds for migratory fish species including the four major Chinese carps and Tenualosa reevesii. Historical records of spawning grounds in Ganjiang River include 12 locations for the four major Chinese carps and 3 locations for Tenualosa reevesii. However, the hydrology of Ganjiang River was severely altered by water conservancy hub operations at Shihutang and Xingan. There is little basic information on early stage fish resources, especially in the middle and lower reaches of Ganjiang River. In this study, we investigated early stage fish resources in those sections, aiming to provide a scientific basis for protecting fish resources and ecological regulation of water conservancy projects in Ganjiang River. From May to June 2017, fish eggs and larvae were sampled in the Fengcheng section of lower Ganjiang River using conical nets and macroplankton nets on separate occasions. Species composition, spawning scale and spawning grounds of early stage fish resources were analyzed. A total of 11,215 eggs and 12,645 larvae were collected in the Fengcheng section, belonging to 8 families and 4 orders. Among them, Cyprinidae was the dominant taxa, accounting for 61.1% of the total species, followed by Cobitidae (19.4%). Of the identified species, the number of fish species with drifting eggs was 24, accounting for 66.7% of the total species. The total recruitment of eggs and larvae during the investigation were estimated at 63.84×108 and 2.82×108, respectively. Recruitment of the four major Chinese carps was 0.07×108 eggs and 0.04×108 larvae. During the surveys, spawning peaked three times, primarily in early and middle June. The quantities of eggs and larvae for different taxa presented obvious temporal variation. Squalidus argentatus peaked in May, and Xenocypris argentea, Parabramis pekinensis, Squaliobarbus curriculus and the four major Chinese carps peaked in June. Our study shows that the number of spawning grounds has decreased. Spawning grounds of the four major Chinese carps in Baqiu disappeared after construction and operation of Xiajiang hydropower project, spawning grounds in Renhe and Xingan were well preserved, and a new spawning ground for the four major Chinese carps, far from the dam, was found in the Dayangzhou reach. We recommend ecological operation of the reservoir so as to produce flows appropriate for fish spawning and development of early life stage pelagic species. Furthermore, fish release and continuing ecological research will strengthen protection of fish resources in Ganjiang River.
郭琴,高 雷,潘文杰,欧阳珊,陈大庆,刘绍平,段辛斌.2020.赣江下游丰城江段鱼类早期资源现状调查[J].水生态学杂志,41(6):106-112.
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