大渡河下游典型鱼类的游泳能力测试
Swimming Capability of Six Typical Fish Species from the Lower Dadu River
投稿时间:2018-05-20  修订日期:2019-12-25
中文关键词:大渡河  典型鱼类  游泳能力  过鱼设施
英文关键词:Dadu River  typical fish species  swimming ability  fish passage facility
基金项目:浙江省自然科学基金(编号:LQ14G030020)
作者单位E-mail
丁少波 北京中环格亿技术咨询有限公司北京 100012 11708878@qq.com 
施家月 中国电建集团华东勘测设计研究院有限公司浙江 杭州 311122 a28129966@163.com 
黄滨 中国电建集团华东勘测设计研究院有限公司浙江 杭州 311122  
赵 爽 浙江广播电视大学浙江 杭州 310030  
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中文摘要:
      通过测试鱼类的游泳能力,可为过鱼设施设计和鱼类行为学研究提供基础资料。在水温18.9~24.3℃和5.58~8.17 mg/L溶氧条件下,采用丹麦Loligo System公司的鱼类游泳能力环形试验水槽,以大渡河下游6种典型鱼类胭脂鱼(Myxocyprinus asiaticus)、长薄鳅(Leptobotia elongata)、长鳍吻鮈(Rhinogobio ventralis)、异鳔鳅鮀(Xenophysogobio boulengeri)、唇?(Hemibarbus labeo)、四川白甲鱼(Onychostoma angustistomata)为研究对象,分别对测试其感应流速、临界游泳速度和爆发游泳速度。结果显示:(1)测试鱼的平均感应流速:白甲鱼9.9~12.3 cm/s,唇?8.5~11.1 cm/s,异鳔鳅鮀12.0~17.5 cm/s,胭脂鱼8.3~13.5 cm/s,长薄鳅14.7~18.1 cm/s,长鳍吻鮈14.0~18.6 cm/s;(2)平均临界游速:白甲鱼106.3~131.1 cm/s,唇?67.9~78.4cm/s,异鳔鳅鮀72.9~80.5 cm/s,胭脂鱼78.1~89.9 cm/s,长薄鳅89.6~109.9 cm/s,长鳍吻鮈83.1~103.8 cm/s;(3)平均爆发游速:白甲鱼149.4~159.1 cm/s,唇?98.9~128.5 cm/s,异鳔鳅鮀98.5~141.5 cm/s,胭脂鱼92.3~125.7 cm/s,长薄鳅125.4~151.8 cm/s,长鳍吻鮈128.6~163.8 cm/s。根据测试结果,建议过鱼孔口近底边区域流速为1.0~1.2 m/s,其余高流速区适当放大至1.4~1.5 m/s;鱼道进口流速值为0.7~1.5 m/s,出鱼口设置在流速持续不小于0.3 m/s的水域,过鱼设施平均流速范围为0.6~1.0 m/s。
英文摘要:
      The swimming ability of target fish species provides an important reference for fish passage design. In this study, the swimming ability of six typical fish species from the lower reaches of Dadu River were tested by measuring the induced velocity, critical swimming speed and burst swimming speed. The objective was to study fish behavior and provide basic data for fish passage design. The swimming ability test was carried out in a LOGIGO SYSTEM SW10200 loop test flume (water temperature, 18.9-24.3℃; dissolved oxygen, 5.58-8.17 mg/L). Prior to testing, fish were acclimated for 1h at 1.0 BL/s to relieve the stress of transfer to the flume. The six species tested were Myxocyprinus asiaticus, Leptobotia elongate, Rhinogobio ventralis, Xenophysogobio boulengeri, Hemibarbus labeo and Onychostoma angustistomata. Because the samples of Onychostoma angustistomata were not collected, the similar species Onychostoma simum was selected as the substitution of Onychostoma angustistomata for the test. Results are as follows: (1) The average induced velocity of Onychostoma simum, Hemibarbus labeo, Xenophysogobio boulengeri, Myxocyprinus asiaticus, Leptobotia elongata, Rhinogobio ventralis were, respectively, 9.9-12.3 cm/s, 8.5-11.1 cm/s, 12.0-17.5 cm/s, 8.3-13.5 cm/s, 14.7-18.1 cm/s and 14.0-18.6 cm/s; (2) The average critical swimming speeds were 106.3-131.1 cm/s for Onychostoma simum , 67.9-78.4 cm/s for Hemibarbus labeo, 72.9-80.5 cm/s for Xenophysogobio boulengeri, 78.1-89.9 cm/s for Myxocyprinus asiaticus, 89.6-109.9 cm/s for Leptobotia elongata and 83.1-103.8 cm/s for Rhinogobio ventralis; (3) The ranges of average burst swimming speed for Onychostoma simum, Hemibarbus labeo, Xenophysogobio boulengeri, Myxocyprinus asiaticus, Leptobotia elongata, Rhinogobio ventralis were 149.4-159.1 cm/s, 98.9-128.5 cm/s, 98.5-141.5 cm/s, 92.3-125.7 cm/s, 125.4-151.8 cm/s and 128.6-163.8 cm/s, respectively. Based on results for the species tested, we recommend a flow velocity of 1.0-1.2 m/s near the bottom of the fish passage and a higher velocity of 1.4-1.5 m/s in other areas, an entrance velocity of 0.7-1.5 m/s, an exit velocity of no less than 0.3 m/s, giving an average flow velocity for the fish passage of 0.6-1.0 m/s.
丁少波,施家月,黄滨,赵 爽.2020.大渡河下游典型鱼类的游泳能力测试[J].水生态学杂志,41(1):46-52.
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