银盘电站蓄水前后乌江下游产漂流性卵鱼类早期资源变化
Natural Reproduction Status of Fish Species Producing Pelagic Eggs Before and After Impoundment of Yin-pan Hydropower Station in the Lower Wujiang River
投稿时间:2018-04-27  修订日期:2019-11-07
中文关键词:漂流性卵  乌江  银盘电站  生态调度
英文关键词:pelagic eggs  Wujiang River  Yinpan hydropower station  ecological operation
基金项目:国家重点研发计划课题(2016YFC0402204);国家自然科学基金(51609156);水利部财政预算项目“三峡库区鱼类资源保护的生态调度综合技术研究(续2018)
作者单位E-mail
徐薇 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所 水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室, 湖北武汉 430079
 
betty3115@126.com 
杨志 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所 水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室, 湖北武汉 430079
 
yangzhi4626@163.com 
万力 长江中游水文水资源勘测局, 湖北武汉 430010 394593870@qq.com 
唐会元 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所 水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室, 湖北武汉 430079
 
tanghy@mail.ihe.ac.cn 
陈小娟 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所 水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室, 湖北武汉 430079
 
chenxj@mail.ihe.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      为了探究水电开发对流域鱼类资源的影响,遏制生物多样性衰退的趋势,2009-2015年5-7月对乌江下游干流漂流性鱼卵进行阶段性调查,初步分析银盘电站蓄水前后产漂流性卵鱼类的自然繁殖变化。结果表明,调查期间共采集到鱼卵12种,包括犁头鳅(Lepturichthys fimbriata)、中华金沙鳅(Jinsha sinensis)、中华沙鳅(Botia superciliaris)、圆筒吻鮈(Rhinogobio cylindricus)、吻鮈(Rhinogobio typus)、长鳍吻鮈(Rhinogobio ventralis)、蛇鮈(Saurogobio dabryi)、花斑副沙鳅(Parabotia fasciata)、铜鱼(Coreius heterodon)、中华倒刺鲃(Spinibarbus sinensis)、翘嘴鲌(Culter alburnus)和蒙古鲌(Culter mongolicus)。漂流性鱼卵年资源量为1012.99万~18673.97万粒,鱼类产卵场自上而下分布有彭水、高谷、江口(杨家沱)、武隆(石鼻子)、土坎(桃子沟)、羊角6处。银盘电站蓄水后,乌江下游产漂流性卵鱼类的自然繁殖较蓄水前发生了显著变化。种类组成中,典型的流水生境繁殖类群减少,缓静水生境繁殖类群增加;产卵规模显著下降,以长鳍吻鮈、铜鱼、圆筒吻鮈、中华金沙鳅的减少尤为显著;产卵场减少并逐步往坝下压缩,数量由6处减少到3处,长度由35 km减少到18 km,位于银盘库区的彭水、高谷产卵场消失,江口产卵场规模显著减少。产漂流性卵鱼类的大规模产卵都在涨水时发生,不同种类产卵对水文条件的要求有所差异,大坝建设引起的栖息地萎缩和水文情势改变是导致乌江下游漂流性卵鱼类早期资源衰退的主要原因。建议采用水库生态调度补偿措施,通过合理下泄生态流量,加大脉冲流量和流水江段长度来满足重要鱼类的繁殖和早期发育需求,并结合人工增殖放流、鱼类基础监测和生态学研究等综合手段,强化乌江下游鱼类资源的生态修复。
英文摘要:
      The Yinpan hydropower station is one of the cascaded power stations in the lower Wujiang River and began operation in April 2011.The backwater of Yinpan Reservoir extends 53 km upstream to the Pengshui hydropower station and the water level below Yinpan dam is influenced by Pengshui Reservoir. Frequent water level variation and habitat segmentation, resulting from the cascaded hydropower development, has seriously disturbed the fish community and biological diversity in the lower Wujiang River. In this study, we systematically investigated early stage fish resources in the lower reach of Wujiang River, from Pengshui to Baima. Floating eggs were collected with nets and the natural spawning status of fish producing pelagic eggs was analyzed before and after impoundment of Yinpan Reservoir. The objective was to explore the impact of hydroelectric development on fish resources and provide scientific data to support conservation of fish resources. Pelagic eggs were collected from May to July of 2009, 2011, 2013-2015, extending through pre-impoundment, impoundment and operation of the Yinpan hydropower station. Collection time, number and development stage of the pelagic eggs were recorded and hydrological parameters, including flow velocity, water temperature and transparency were measured. The number of pelagic eggs collected in 2009, 2011, 2013, 2014 and 2015 were, respectively, 3 052, 479, 386, 462 and 578, with an estimated annual abundance ranging from 10.13 million to 186.74 million eggs. A total of 12 fish species laying pelagic eggs were identified: Lepturichthys fimbriata, Jinsha sinensis, Botia superciliaris, Rhinogobio cylindricus, Rhinogobio typus, Rhinogobio ventralis, Saurogobio dabryi, Parabotia fasciata, Coreius heterodon, Spinibarbus sinensis, Culter alburnus and Culter mongolicus. Six spawning grounds were located in the reach investigated, located (upstream to downstream) in the Pengshui, Gaogu, Jiangkou (Yangjiatuo), Wulong (Shibizi), and Tukan (Taozigou) sections. Pelagic egg resources were drastically altered by impoundment of Yinpan Reservoir. The rheophilic(/,ri??'f?l?k/)breeding group decreased significantly, while the stagnophilic breeding group increased significantly. Furthermore, the spawning scale of each species declined sharply, especially for Rhinogobio ventralis, Coreius heterokon, Rhinogobio cylindricus, and Jinsha sinensis. The number of spawning grounds decreased from six to three after impoundment and the spawning grounds moved downstream, decreasing in total length from 35km to 18km. Spawning of fish species that produce pelagic eggs is dependent on distinct hydrological requirements and alteration of hydrology by dam construction is the primary cause of declining pelagic egg and larval fish resources in the lower Wujiang River. We suggest ecological reservoir operation to produce flows that are appropriate for fish spawning and early life development of pelagic species. Fish monitoring, artificial breeding and release, and continuing ecological research can strengthen fish resource protection and enhance restoration efforts in the lower Wujiang River.
徐薇,杨志,万力,唐会元,陈小娟.2019.银盘电站蓄水前后乌江下游产漂流性卵鱼类早期资源变化[J].水生态学杂志,40(6):8-15.
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