滆湖鲢和鳙肠道生长格局研究
Intestine Growth Patterns of Chinese Silver Carp and Bighead Carp inGehu Lake, Jiangsu Province, China
投稿时间:2018-04-05  修订日期:2020-06-12
中文关键词:滆湖  肠道指数      异速生长  食性
英文关键词:Gehu Lake  intestinal index  silver carp  bighead carp  allometric growth  feeding habits
基金项目:江苏省渔业科技项目(Y2017-23);国家重点研发计划重点专项(2019YFD0900605)
作者单位E-mail
胡忠军 水产科学国家级实验教学示范中心上海海洋大学,上海 201306 上海水产养殖工程技术研究中心上海海洋大学上海 201306 农业部鱼类营养与环境生态研究中心上海海洋大学上海 201306
 
zjhu@shou.edu.cn 
施玉雪 水产科学国家级实验教学示范中心上海海洋大学,上海 201306上海水产养殖工程技术研究中心上海海洋大学上海 201306农业部鱼类营养与环境生态研究中心上海海洋大学上海 201306
 
 
孔优佳 江苏省滆湖渔业管理委员会办公室常州 213000  
花少鹏 江苏省滆湖渔业管理委员会办公室常州 213000  
孙宇 内蒙古科右中旗水产管理站, 兴安盟 029400  
于文涵 水产科学国家级实验教学示范中心上海海洋大学,上海 201306 上海水产养殖工程技术研究中心上海海洋大学上海 201306 农业部鱼类营养与环境生态研究中心上海海洋大学上海 201306
 
 
刘其根 水产科学国家级实验教学示范中心上海海洋大学,上海 201306 上海水产养殖工程技术研究中心上海海洋大学上海 201306 农业部鱼类营养与环境生态研究中心上海海洋大学上海 201306
 
 
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中文摘要:
      研究了滆湖自然水体鲢(Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)、鳙(Aristichthysnobilis)肠道长度和重量的生长规律,为指示鲢鳙食性的差异提供资料。采用三层刺网在滆湖国家级水产种质资源保护区的实验区采集鲢鳙样品503尾(鲢250尾、鳙253尾),进行形态学测量,计算4种肠道指数,包括相对肠重、相对肠长、ZI指数和相对肠道内含物重量。结果表明,滆湖鲢鳙肠长相对体长和体重、肠重相对肠长、肠道内含物重相对体重均呈正异速生长或增加,鲢鳙肠重相对体重分别呈等速和负异速生长;相对肠长、ZI指数、相对肠道内含物重指数鲢显著大于鳙,肠重肠长正好相反,相对肠重鲢鳙间无显著差异。根据文献对比及相对肠长与营养级的经验公式,鲢鳙均为偏浮游植物杂食性鱼类,与鳙为偏浮游动物食性鱼类的普遍认识不太一致,需要更多的研究以增加相对肠长对鱼类食性的指示作用;与鳙相比,鲢从更多且质量较低的食物中满足营养和能量需求的主要机制是增加肠道长度而不是分配更多组织给肠道;根据肠长能识别体型相似的2个近缘物种(鲢鳙)的食性差异,而根据肠重不能识别。
英文摘要:
      Interspecific differences in intestinal morphology are long-term evolutionary responses of animals to food quality. Gut length and mass are two important morphometric characteristics of the digestive tract and used as indicators for interspecific dietary comparisons. It is crucial that gut length and mass grow with body size to meet nutrient and energy needs during maturation. To date, few studies have been reported on quantitative descriptions of growth patterns of gut length and mass for fish in China. Chinese silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) are two well-known commercial species in China. They are often used as representative species when applying biomanipulation to control blue-green algal blooms in inland water bodies. However, there are conflicting views on whether they can effectively depress phytoplankton biomass due to controversy over their dietary composition. In this study, the growth of gut length and mass of silver carp and bighead carp in Gehu Lake were compared and differences in their diets were explored. A total of 250 silver carps and 253 bighead carps were collected from April to October, 2015 and gut length, gut mass and gut content mass of all specimens were measured. The relationships of log10 gut dimensions against log10 body size were established using reduced major axis regression. The relationships of gut length to body size (body length and body mass), gut mass to gut length, and gut content mass to body mass of silver carps and bighead carps were positively allometric. The relationship of gut mass to body mass was isometric for silver carps and negatively allometric for bighead carps. Relative gut length (RGL), Zihler’s index (ZI) and relative gut content mass of silver carp were significantly higher than those of bighead carp, while the reverse was found in the ratio of gut mass to gut length. There was no significant difference in relative gut mass between the two carps. In terms of the literature analysis and the empirical formula of the relationship between fish diet and RGL, it could be presumed that the two carps are omnivores with preference for phytoplankton, and that is inconsistent with the general understanding that bighead carp are omnivores with preference for zooplankton. Thus, more research should be conducted on the relationship of RGL to fish diet in China. To meet their nutrient and energy requirements, silver carp depend on a longer gut to digest food of relatively low quality rather than on increased gut mass as in bighead carp. Gut length can be used to identify dietary differences between closely related species, such as silver and bighead carp, but gut mass cannot.
胡忠军,施玉雪,孔优佳,花少鹏,孙宇,于文涵,刘其根.2020.滆湖鲢和鳙肠道生长格局研究[J].水生态学杂志,41(3):92-99.
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