人工鱼巢及孵化暂养槽在产粘性卵鱼类资源保护中的应用研究
Use of Artificial Fish Nests and Incubators in Three Georges Reservoir to Conserve Fish Species with Adhesive Eggs
投稿时间:2018-03-27  修订日期:2018-09-19
中文关键词:三峡水库  产粘性卵鱼类  早期资源  人工鱼巢  人工孵化暂养槽
英文关键词:Three Gorges Reservoir  fish species with adhesive eggs  fish early life stages  artificial fish nest  artificial hatching tank
基金项目:中国长江三峡集团公司三峡环境基金(2012BAC06B04)。
作者单位E-mail
王军红 中国长江三峡集团公司中华鲟研究所三峡工程鱼类资源保护湖北省重点试验室湖北宜昌443100 583201237@qq.com 
姜伟 中国长江三峡集团公司中华鲟研究所三峡工程鱼类资源保护湖北省重点试验室湖北宜昌443100 jiang_wei6@ctg.com.cn 
高勇 中国长江三峡集团公司中华鲟研究所三峡工程鱼类资源保护湖北省重点试验室湖北宜昌443100 gao_yong@ctg.com.cn 
陈磊 中国长江三峡集团公司中华鲟研究所三峡工程鱼类资源保护湖北省重点试验室湖北宜昌443100 chen_lei@ctg.com.cn 
郜星晨 中国长江三峡集团公司中华鲟研究所三峡工程鱼类资源保护湖北省重点试验室湖北宜昌443100 gao_xingchen@ctg.com.cn 
李莎 中国长江三峡集团公司中华鲟研究所三峡工程鱼类资源保护湖北省重点试验室湖北宜昌443100 li_sha1@ctg.com.cn 
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中文摘要:
      采用人工鱼巢及孵化暂养槽对产粘性卵鱼类的早期资源进行监测,为制定减少三峡水库在消落过程中对消落带产粘性卵鱼类繁殖的影响的保护措施提供支持。2016-2017年,在三峡水库重庆木洞江段桃花岛内河中段设置人工鱼巢(采用水生植物作为粘性卵附着物)和孵化暂养槽,对产粘性卵鱼类的早期资源及同步水温、水文状况进行103d监测。结果表明,鱼巢当天有新增卵(1~5级)的天数为52d(占监测天数的50.5%),其中产卵量较多(3~5级)的天数有19d(占监测天数的18.5%),主要集中在4月上旬至5月上旬。产卵时水温范围为13~30℃,产卵盛期水温范围为16~29℃。选取的29批卵孵化、存活率高达90%以上,苗体健壮。平均孵化水温在14.28-29.5℃时,孵化时间为1~8d。初步鉴定出在鱼巢上产卵的鱼有10余种。人工鱼巢和孵化暂养槽可直接作为产粘性卵鱼类资源恢复的技术手段,同时也可以作为鱼类产卵规律研究及资源调查的科研工具。
英文摘要:
      March to June is the pre-flood drawdown stage in the Three Gorges Reservoir annual operating cycle and it is also the peak breeding season for fish species that spawn adhesive eggs. To conserve these species, it is necessary to mitigate the impacts of reservoir operation on fish spawning. To develop conservation measures and mitigate the effect of declining water level on fish reproduction, we used an artificial fish nest (with aquatic plants used for egg attachment) and an incubator (hatching tank) on Taohua Island in the Mudong section of the Yangtze River from 2016 to 2017. The early life history (egg quantities and hatching rates) of fish species spawning adhesive eggs was monitored for 103 days. Water temperature and level were also monitored as part of evaluating the effectiveness of the artificial system. Results indicate that fish producing adhesive eggs had an affinity for the artificial fish nest. During the monitoring period, newly spawned eggs (the number of eggs was classified from I to V) were observed on 52 days. Of these 52 days, there were 19 days when a large number of eggs (III – V) were observed. Spawning time peaked from early April to early May. The water temperature range was 13-30 °C during spawning season and the range was 16-29 °C during the peak spawning period. Twenty-nine batches of fertilized eggs were cultured in the incubator and the hatching rate was as high as 90%. The hatching time varied from 1 to 8 days, the water temperature range was 14.3 - 29.5 °C and > 10 species spawned on the artificial nest. In conclusion, the artificial fish nest and hatching tank are an effective means for conserving fish that spawn adhesive eggs and would be a suitable platform for researching fish spawning patterns and investigating fish resources.
王军红,姜伟,高勇,陈磊,郜星晨,李莎.2018.人工鱼巢及孵化暂养槽在产粘性卵鱼类资源保护中的应用研究[J].水生态学杂志,39(5):116-120.
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