黄河源典型卵石河床底栖动物的小尺度分布
Small-scale Distribution of Macroinvertebrates in a Typical Gravel Bed of the Yellow River Headwaters
投稿时间:2018-03-21  修订日期:2019-12-28
中文关键词:黄河源  底栖动物  物种数  个体数  卵石表面积
英文关键词:Yellow River headwaters  macroinvertebrates  species number  individual number  stone surface area
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(51809086;51779120);河南省高等学校重点科研项目(16A416002)
作者单位邮编
赵娜 河南科技大学农业装备工程学院河南 洛阳471003长沙理工大学水沙科学与水灾害防治湖南省重点实验室湖南 长沙 410114 471003
周罕觅 河南科技大学农业装备工程学院河南 洛阳471003 
李志威 长沙理工大学水沙科学与水灾害防治湖南省重点实验室湖南 长沙 410114 
徐梦珍 清华大学水沙科学与水利水电工程国家重点实验室北京100084 
尹冬雪 河南科技大学农业装备工程学院河南 洛阳471003 
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中文摘要:
      研究卵石河床上底栖动物的小尺度分布对保护河流生态完整具有重要意义. 为了解底栖动物在单个卵石上的分布特征,于2012年7月和2013年6月在黄河源区兰木错曲卵石河床选取6个样点进行底栖动物采样调查,同时对样点环境参数进行监测,对河流水质、底栖动物组成、物种丰富度和卵石表面积进行分析,以揭示底栖动物种数、个体数与卵石表面积的关系,探究大卵石层和卵石夹沙层中的底栖动物群落特征. 结果表明,研究河段基本处于自然状态,水质为II类. 调查期间共采集底栖动物2门、4纲、9目、16科、28属,在物种组成上,以水生昆虫为主. 单个卵石上底栖动物的种数和个体数随着卵石表面积的增加呈幂指数增加,对数函数相关系数 R2分别为0.589、0.655(P<0.01). 卵石河床上,卵石夹沙层和大卵石层的物种丰富度(10~13种)差别不大,卵石夹沙层的密度(706~868个/m2)远高于大卵石层(194~360个/m2). 大卵石不易随水流运动,更适合附石类底栖动物尤其是毛翅目(Trichoptera)生存,大卵石层毛翅目的物种数(2~5 种)和密度(12~87个/m2)均高于卵石夹沙层(1~2种、1~9个/m2). 毛翅目对河流生态具有重要作用,大卵石层对维持河流生态健康具有重要作用.
英文摘要:
      Research on small-scale distribution of macroinvertebrates in gravel bed is important for protecting the integrity of river ecology. In order to study the distribution of benthic organisms on a single stone, field investigations of macroinvertebrates and environmental parameters were conducted in July 2012 and June 2013 in a headwater stream (Lanmucuoqu River) of the Yellow River. The investigation focused on water quality, macroinvertebrate community composition, taxa richness and stone surface area. The objectives were to characterize the relationship of species number, individual number of benthic organisms and stone surface area, and the macroinvertebrate community in cobble and gravel-sand layers. The study will provide scientific data supporting the conservation and management of riverine ecosystems. The river section studied was generally in a natural condition, with Grade II water quality.A total of 28 macroinvertebrate genera belonging to 2 phyla, 4 classes, 9 orders, and 16 families were identified, with dominance by aquatic insects. The species number and individual number of benthic organisms on a single stone increased with stone area (power exponent relationship), with the correlation coefficient R2 of logarithmic function 0.589,0.655(P<0.01), respectively. The difference of taxa richness (10-13) between gravel-sand layer and cobble layer was small, while the density in the gravel-sand layer (706-868 ind/m2) was much higher than in the cobble layer (194-360 ind/m2). Cobbles are not easily moved by flowing water and provide a more stable substrate, so the number of attached organisms is higher, especially for Trichoptera. The species number (2-5) and density (12-87 ind/m2) of Trichoptera in the cobble layer was higher than in the gravel-sand layer (species number 1-2, density 1-9 ind/m2). Trichoptera plays an important role in aquatic ecology and cobber layer is important in maintaining riverine health in the headwater area of the Yellow River.
赵娜,周罕觅,李志威,徐梦珍,尹冬雪.2020.黄河源典型卵石河床底栖动物的小尺度分布[J].水生态学杂志,41(1):22-29.
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