短须裂腹鱼仔稚鱼发育及生长特性的初步研究
Development and Growth Characteristics of Larval and Juvenile Schizothorax wangchiachii
投稿时间:2018-02-02  修订日期:2019-11-06
中文关键词:短须裂腹鱼  仔稚鱼  生长特性
英文关键词:Schizothorax wangchiachii  larval and juvenile fish  growth characteristics
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(No. 31402303)
作者单位E-mail
黄俊 中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所农业部淡水生物多样性保护重点实验室湖北 武汉 430223
长江大学动物科学学院湖北 荆州 434020 
ahwhhuang@163.com 
朱挺兵 中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所农业部淡水生物多样性保护重点实验室湖北 武汉 430223 zhutb2008@163.com 
杨德国 中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所农业部淡水生物多样性保护重点实验室湖北 武汉 430223 yangdg@139.com 
吴兴兵 中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所农业部淡水生物多样性保护重点实验室湖北 武汉 430223  
柴 毅 长江大学动物科学学院湖北 荆州 434020  
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中文摘要:
      为了掌握长江上游特有鱼类短须裂腹鱼(Schizothorax wangchiachii)的基础生物学资料,遏制其自然资源迅速下降态势,维护长江鱼类的生物多样性,在水温10.0~20.4℃的条件下,对人工催产孵化的短须裂腹鱼仔稚鱼形态发育特征进行了连续观察,并逐日记录其生长情况,分析其生长特性。结果显示,刚出膜短须裂腹鱼仔鱼全长(9.83±0.88)mm,呈现透明淡黄色,卵黄囊较大,胸鳍较小,仔鱼多侧卧静栖水底,刺激下可以向前移动;23日龄仔鱼全长(15.18±0.52)mm,卵黄全部消失,鳔室呈长圆柱形,肠道内充满食物,进入稚鱼期;35日龄稚鱼全长(16.75±0.75)mm,出现二鳔室、腹鳍呈现月牙状,腹鳍褶皱宽大;65日龄稚鱼全长(23.64±0.82)mm,腹鳍褶皱几乎消失,各鳍均已出现,除未见臀鳞外,其生活习性已同成鱼相似。短须裂腹鱼仔稚鱼的生长呈现先急速增加、而后平缓、再快速增加、而后变慢的过程,特定生长率呈现先迅速增加然后指数型下降的趋势。运用Matlab对短须裂腹鱼体长(LP)与日龄(t)的多项式关系函数(LP = 9.729 + 0.551t - 0.024t2 + 5.128E-4t3 - 3.442E-6t4 (R=0.967,SD=0.68,P<0.001))进行分析,求得22.14日龄和52.35日龄是短须裂腹鱼仔稚鱼生长变化的关键日龄,这与个体发育阶段的卵黄消失(23日龄)和52日龄左右(20 mm左右)稚鱼高死亡率相接近。
英文摘要:
      The larval and juvenile stages of fish are most sensitive to environmental stress. Research on these early developmental stages provides a foundation for artificial breeding and recruitment of fishery resources. Schizothorax wangchiachii is an important commercial fish distributed widely in the upper reaches of Yangtze River. Wild populations of S. wangchiachii have declined quickly because of human activities and development of hydropower. Building on previous research on artificial breeding and the embryonic and early larval stages of S. wangchiachii, this study describes and illustrates larval and juvenile growth characteristics of S. wangchiachii. The objectives were to continue accumulating basic data of the early life history for S. wangchiachii and provide theoretical evidence for resource conservation and ecological restoration of this species. In December 2016, the morphological development of S. wangchiachii larvae and juveniles obtained by artificial breeding was observed daily. Parent fish were collected from Guosheng tributary of the upper Yalong River. Zygotes were collected and placed in an incubation pond at a temperature of 12.7-15.5℃, DO of 7.92-12.30 mg/L and pH of 6.42-8.63. Larvae grow in the temperature range of 10.0-20.4℃. Each day at 9:00, 30 S. wangchiachii larvae were sampled for determination of total and post-anal length, and larvae were photographed and morphological changes noted. Newly hatched larvae were transparent and primrose yellow with a relatively large yolk sac and small pectoral fin, with an average total length (LP) of (9.83±0.88) mm. The larvae usually lie on the bottom and were able to move forward when stimulated. On day 23, S. wangchiachii larvae were (15.18±0.52) mm, the yolk sac was fully absorbed, a long cylindrical bladder chamber had developed and the intestine was full of food, indicating that the larval stage of S. wangchiachii had ended and the fish was at the juvenile stage. On day 35, the total length of the juveniles was (16.75±0.75) mm, a two-chamber air bladder had formed and the ventral fin was crescent shaped with wide folds. On day 65, the total length of the juveniles was (23.64±0.82) mm, the ventral fold was gone and the juveniles were similar in morphology and ecology to adult fish. The growth rate of larval and juvenile S. wangchiachii was cyclic: first increasing rapidly, briefly slowing down and again increasing, and then decreasing. The specific growth rate (SGR) of larval and juvenile S. wangchiachii increased rapidly and then decreased exponentially. The relationship of total length with age (in days) is described by the function LP = 9.729 + 0.551t - 0.024t2 + 5.128E-4t3 - 3.442E-6t4 (R=0.967,SD=0.68,P<0.001). Growth nodes for larval and juvenile S. wangchiachii occurred at the average ages of 22.14 days old and 52.35 days, based on disappearance of the yolk sac (23 days) and the peak in mortality (52 days, larvae-20 mm).
黄俊,朱挺兵,杨德国,吴兴兵,柴 毅.2019.短须裂腹鱼仔稚鱼发育及生长特性的初步研究[J].水生态学杂志,40(6):99-105.
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