长江宜昌段鳙的繁殖生物学初步研究
Reproductive Biology of Aristichthys nobilis in the Yichang reach of Yangtze River
投稿时间:2018-01-31  修订日期:2019-11-12
中文关键词:  繁殖特征  繁殖期  宜昌江段
英文关键词:Aristichthys nobilis  reproduction biology  breeding season  Yichang reach of the Yangtze River,
基金项目:农业部长江中上游渔业资源环境科学观测站资助;国家重点研发计划“典型脆弱生态修复与保护研究”重点 专项(2016YFC0502210)
作者单位E-mail
郜星晨 中国长江三峡集团公司中华鲟研究所湖北 宜昌 443100 三峡工程鱼类资源保护湖北省重点试验室, 湖北 宜昌 443100
 
13039829682@126.com 
姜伟 中国长江三峡集团公司中华鲟研究所湖北 宜昌 443100三峡工程鱼类资源保护湖北省重点试验室, 湖北 宜昌 443100
 
1042259324@qq.com 
张琪 中国长江三峡集团公司中华鲟研究所湖北 宜昌 443100 三峡工程鱼类资源保护湖北省重点试验室, 湖北 宜昌 443100
 
512905156@qq.com 
刘绍平 农业部长江中上游渔业资源环科学观测试验站, 中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所湖北 武汉 430223 1042259324@qq.com 
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中文摘要:
      研究长江宜昌江段鳙野生群体的性比、年龄结构、初次性成熟体长、繁殖力和产卵类型等生活史特征,为三峡水库生态调度方案的优化、鳙增殖放流和人工繁殖提供科学数据。2015年3月至2016年5月,在长江中游宜昌江段月度采样,共收集鳙(Aristichthys nobilis)样本940尾,其中可区分性别个体135尾(♀68尾,♂ 67尾)。性腺发育达到IV期及以上个体共计55尾,其中雌鱼32尾、雄鱼23尾。繁殖群体雌雄性比为1.4:1,体长370~900 mm,体重500~11650 g,由2~7龄共6个年龄组组成。采用Logistic方程推算出初次性成熟个体特征,雌性平均体长480.1 mm,对应体重2137.6 g,平均年龄3.33龄;雄性平均体长464.0 mm,对应体重1937.5 g,平均年龄2.91龄。卵径(3.75 ± 0.14)mm,大小分布呈双峰型,推测为分批同步产卵型鱼类。绝对繁殖力(390000 ± 79000)粒,相对繁殖力为(72.4± 3.0)粒/g,绝对繁殖力随着鱼体长、体重增长而增大。性腺成熟系数周年变化规律显示,宜昌江段鳙的繁殖时间为5月下旬至8月上旬,以6~7月为盛产期。建议提高鳙开捕年龄,严格限制捕捞未性成熟个体;同时加强产卵场的修复和栖息地的保护,并定期实施合理的增殖放流和生态调度。
英文摘要:
      The Zhijiang-Yichang section of Yangtze River is the most representative spawning ground of the middle Yangtze River and was the largest spawning ground in the historical record. In recent years, the wild population of Aristichthys nobilis in the Yichang reach has sharply declined due to the environment pollution, over fishing and the construction of two large-scale hydropower stations. In this study, we studied the reproductive characteristics of the A. nobilis population in Yichang section of the Yangtze River, including sex ratio, age structure, reproductive capability, body length at sexual maturity and spawning characteristics. The objectives were to provide scientific evidence for more ecological operation of Three Gorges Reservoir and artificial breeding and release of A. nobilis. From March 2015 to May in 2016, a total of 940 wild A. nobilis were collected in the Yichang reach and body length, body weight and gonad weight or egg diameter of each specimen were measured and age was determined based on scales. The sex of 135 individuals was identified and there were 68 females and 67 males. There were 55 individuals with gonads at stage IV, 32 females and 23 males resulting in a sex ratio of 1.4:1. Among the sexually mature fish, the body length range was 370-900 mm, the body weight range was 500-11650 g and the age range was 2-7 years. Upon reaching sexual maturity, average length was 480.1 mm for females and 464.0 mm for males, average weight was 2137.6 g for females and 1937.5 g for males and the average age was 3.33 years for females and 2.91 years for males. There were no significant differences between the female and male groups. Wild A. nobilis spawned from May to August and peaked in June and July. The average egg diameter of A. nobilis with ovary at stage IV was (3.75±0.14)mm. The size distribution of eggs in the ovaries fell in two groups, and we assume that A. nobilis spawns more than one batch per year, with all mature eggs laid during spawning season. The absolute fecundity of A. nobilis ranged from 200,000 eggs to 630,000 eggs with an average value of (390,000 ± 79,000)eggs, and the relative fecundity ranged from 45.1eggs per gram to 102.0 eggs per gram and averaged (72.4 ± 3.0)eggs per gram. The absolute fecundity was positively correlated to body length and weight.
郜星晨,姜伟,张琪,刘绍平.2019.长江宜昌段鳙的繁殖生物学初步研究[J].水生态学杂志,40(6):92-98.
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