输水工程中淡水壳菜生物污损影响及防治对策研究
Impact and Control Measures for Limnoperna fortunei (Golden Mussel) Biofouling in Water Diversion Projects
投稿时间:2018-01-26  修订日期:2020-01-03
中文关键词:输水工程  淡水壳菜  生物污损  防治对策
英文关键词:inter-basin water diversion  golden mussel invasion  biofouling  biofouling prevention
基金项目:水沙科学与水利水电工程国家重点实验室自主科研项目(2016-KY-04;2019-KY-01);南水北调中线干线工程建设管理局科研项目(ZXJ/YW/JF-017)
作者单位E-mail
田勇 南水北调中线干线工程建设管理局北京 100038 tianyong@nsbd.cn 
张爱静 南水北调中线干线工程建设管理局北京 100038  
王树磊 南水北调中线干线工程建设管理局北京 100038  
徐梦珍 清华大学 水沙科学与水利水电工程国家重点实验室北京 100084  
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中文摘要:
      淡水壳菜(Limnoperna fortune)是自然河流的滤食性底栖动物,极易进入输水工程通道,在输水结构上高密度附着生长,造成生物污损,降低输水效率,威胁工程运行。本文介绍淡水壳菜的生态学特性,分析生物污损对输水工程的不利影响,总结目前已采取防治措施及评估效果,提出应深入开展生物污损风险评估及系统定量研究,建立快速灵敏的监测预警体系等管理对策,为输水工程运行管理提供参考。
英文摘要:
      Limnoperna fortunei (golden mussel) is a filter-feeding species of macroinvertebrate widely inhabiting the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River and southern China. The veligers of L. fortunei readily invade water transfer tunnels and, after developing, attach to tunnel walls and other structures at high densities. The biofouling that results clogs pipes, lowers water transfer efficiency and leads to corrosion and water pollution. Golden mussel invasions have become a global concern. Research, at home and abroad, has been conducted to solve biofouling and other ecological and social problems caused by golden mussels, but few methods are effective and sustainable. In this paper, we describe the biological characteristics of golden mussel, analyze the negative effects of mussel biofouling on water transfer projects and evaluate prevention and control measures based on an intensive literature review. Particular attention is given to the challenges of biofouling by golden mussels in large inter-basin water diversion projects. Finally, countermeasures for golden mussel biofouling in water transfer projects are suggested. We recommend a combination of prevention and control of veliger invasion of water diversion projects as the most effective strategy. Systematic and quantitative long-term monitoring of mussel biofouling is necessary to provide technical support for project management and risk assessments of veliger invasion. More specifically, rapid and sensitive monitoring should be established at water diversion project inlets to provide an early warning system for golden mussel invasion. Prevention of mussel byssus adhesion is one of the most promising methods for biofouling control in large water diversion projects. This will require the development of effective, bio-compatible coating materials. Coating material effectiveness is negatively related to contact angle and solid-liquid interfacial energy, and positively related to the dispersion force of surface free energy and the solid surface free energy of the coatings. Flow velocity or flow field in the tunnels, within the range of safe operating conditions, could be adjusted to reduce attachment efficiency and/or survival of golden mussels. High frequency turbulent flow has been proven effectivity in killing golden mussel veligers when the Kolmogorov turbulence length is comparable or shorter than veliger body length. The veliger mortality rate is positively correlated with average flow velocity and turbulence action time. Based on our review of the literature, the most effective solution to the veliger biofouling problem combines systematic monitoring for early detection, prevention of byssus adhesion using surface coatings and reduction of veliger survival by adjusting channel flow velocity and turbulence.
田勇,张爱静,王树磊,徐梦珍.2020.输水工程中淡水壳菜生物污损影响及防治对策研究[J].水生态学杂志,41(1):110-116.
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