洞庭湖水质污染状况及主要污染物来源分析
Pollution Status and Source Analysis of the Water Environment in Dongting Lake
投稿时间:2018-01-22  修订日期:2019-07-16
中文关键词:水质评价;污染物;污染来源  洞庭湖
英文关键词:water quality assessment  nutrient pollution  pollutant source  Dongting Lake
基金项目:国务院三峡办“三峡工程生态与环境监测系统-洞庭湖江湖生态监测重点站”项目(2014年);2015年湖南省环境保护厅重点专项(洞庭湖区环境污染现状调查)
作者单位E-mail
郭晶 湖南省洞庭湖生态环境监测中心国家环境保护洞庭湖科学观测研究站湖南 岳阳 414000 happy.guojing@163.com 
连花 湖南省洞庭湖生态环境监测中心国家环境保护洞庭湖科学观测研究站湖南 岳阳 414000 153408578@qq.com 
李利强 湖南省洞庭湖生态环境监测中心国家环境保护洞庭湖科学观测研究站湖南 岳阳 414000 liliqiang858@163.com 
黄代中 湖南省洞庭湖生态环境监测中心国家环境保护洞庭湖科学观测研究站湖南 岳阳 414000 1822965962@qq.com 
王丑明 湖南省洞庭湖生态环境监测中心国家环境保护洞庭湖科学观测研究站湖南 岳阳 414000  
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中文摘要:
      分析洞庭湖的水环境变化趋势,为洞庭湖水环境治理和水环境保护提供依据。在洞庭湖共设置17个监测断面,包括5个入湖口断面、11个湖体断面、1个出湖口断面,2012-2016年每月监测1次水质,以2014年为调查基准年,对入湖河流和洞庭湖区主要污染负荷进行调查与估算。2016年,洞庭湖5个入湖口断面水质均达到或优于Ⅲ类水质标准,总体水质状况为优;11个湖体断面和1个出湖口断面总体水质为Ⅳ类,属轻度污染,Ⅳ类和Ⅴ类水质断面比例分别为83.33%和16.67%;西洞庭湖的南嘴和东洞庭湖的大小西湖为Ⅴ类水质,处于中度污染状态。2016年17个断面的TN年均值1.523~2.356 mg/L,TP年均值0.064~0.139mg/L。2012洞庭湖没有Ⅴ类水质断面,2013、2014、2016年Ⅴ类水质占比约20%,2015年Ⅴ类水占52.94%。2012-2016年洞庭湖TN年均值1.411~2.746 mg/L,TP年均值0.032~0.162 mg/L。入洞庭湖污染物主要来源于湘江、沅江和松滋口水系,入湖通量是总氮、总磷污染物输入主要来源;区氮磷污染主要来源于畜禽养殖和城镇生活废水排放。
英文摘要:
      Research on the status and dynamics of water quality in Dongting Lake provides a scientific basis for managing and protecting the water environment. In this study, we tracked variations in water quality in Dongting Lake from 2012 to 2016, analyzed pollutant loading and identified primary pollutant sources based on the 2014 study of pollution sources. A total of 17 monitoring sites were set in Dongting Lake; 5 at lake inlets, 11 in open lake areas and 1 at the outlet. Water environmental parameters were monitored monthly from 2012 to 2016 and the single factor method was used to evaluate water quality at each site. In 2016, water quality at the five lake inlet sites all met Class Ⅲ standard and was generally good. Water quality at the open lake sites and outlet met Class Ⅳ and Ⅴ standards, indicating light pollution. Water quality at the Nanzui site (west Dongting Lake) and the Daxiaoxihu site (east Dongting Lake) met Class Ⅴ standards, indicating moderate pollution. In 2012, water quality at all monitoring sites was better than Class Ⅴ, but declined to Class Ⅴ at 20% of the sites in 2013, 2014 and 2016 and 52.94% of the sites in 2015. TN and TP were the main pollutants. From 2012 to 2016, the annual average concentration range of TN was 1.411-2.746 mg/L and, for TP, 0.032-0.162 mg/L. In 2016, the average concentration range of TN at the 17 sites was 1.523-2.356 mg/L and, for TP, 0.064-0.139 mg/L. The major sources of TN and TP to Dongting Lake were inflows, primarily from Xiangjiang River, Yuanjiang River and Songzi inlet. TN was mainly from the Xiangjiang and Yuanjiang Rivers and TP was mainly from Yuanjiang River and Songzi inlet. Livestock, poultry and discharge of municipal wastewater were the primary sources of nitrogen and phosphorus pollution in the lake basin.
郭晶,连花,李利强,黄代中,王丑明.2019.洞庭湖水质污染状况及主要污染物来源分析[J].水生态学杂志,40(4):1-7.
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