免疫增强剂对齐口裂腹鱼生长性能和免疫功能的影响
Effects of three immunostimulants on growth performance and non-specific immunity of Schizothorax prenanti
投稿时间:2017-11-30  修订日期:2019-09-16
中文关键词:齐口裂腹鱼  枯草芽孢杆菌  酵母细胞壁多糖  酵母水解物  生长性能  免疫功能
英文关键词:Schizothorax prenanti  Bacillus subtilis  yeast cell wall polysaccharides  autolyzed yeast  growth performance  immunity
基金项目:高品质水产品养殖关键技术研究与示范(湖北省农业科技创新中心项目,2016-620-007-001)
作者单位E-mail
杨军 湖北省宜昌市水产技术推广站湖北 宜昌443000 1010893056@qq.com 
冯德品 湖北省宜昌市水产技术推广站湖北 宜昌443000 185158440@qq.com 
董舰峰 湖北省宜昌市水产技术推广站湖北 宜昌443000 125989108@qq.com 
张金平 湖北省宜昌市水产技术推广站湖北 宜昌443000 1076490787@qq.com 
王哲 华中农业大学水产学院湖北 武汉 430070湖北省水生动物病害防控工程技术研究中心湖北 武汉 430070 wangjiazhe@webmail.hzau.edu.cn 
吴昊 华中农业大学水产学院湖北 武汉 430070湖北省水生动物病害防控工程技术研究中心湖北 武汉 430070 1243472612@qq.com 
何志刚 湖北省宜昌市水产技术推广站湖北 宜昌443000 735181709@qq.com 
顾泽茂 华中农业大学水产学院湖北 武汉 430070湖北省水生动物病害防控工程技术研究中心湖北 武汉 430070 guzemao@mail.hzau.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      开发高效安全的免疫添加剂用以改善齐口裂腹鱼自身免疫抗病机能,是应对其病害问题的手段之一。为研究饲料中添加免疫增强剂对齐口裂腹鱼(Schizothorax prenanti)生长性能及免疫功能的影响,在基础饲料中分别添加0.1%、0.2%和0.3%的枯草芽孢杆菌、酵母细胞壁多糖和酵母水解物,养殖初始体重(61.12 ± 1.37)g的健康齐口裂腹鱼90 d。结果显示,相比对照组,枯草芽孢杆菌组和酵母细胞壁多糖实验组的齐口裂腹鱼增重率(WGR)和特定生长率(SGR)显著升高(P < 0.05),饵料系数(FCR)降低,且以酵母细胞壁多糖对提高齐口裂腹鱼生长性能效果最为明显。当添加剂量增加到0.3%时,酵母细胞壁多糖组增重率和特定生长率相比于其他两个梯度有显著性提高,而其他两个实验组差异不显著,酵母细胞水解物则能显著降低饵料系数;在免疫功能方面,3种免疫增强剂的3种浓度下,齐口裂腹鱼溶菌酶(LSZ)和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性均显著高于对照组(P < 0.05),且以芽孢杆菌组效果最为显著,分别为(3.93 ± 0.35) μg/mL和(153.34 ± 1.50) μg/mg。而3个实验组碱性磷酸酶(ALP)活性与对照组相比差异不显著,且不同剂量组间不存在显著差异。当添加量为0.1%时,酵母细胞壁多糖组和酵母提取物组酸性磷酸酶(ACP)活性均显著低于对照组,当添加量为0.3%时,3个实验组酸性磷酸酶(ACP)活性均显著高于对照组(P < 0.05)。研究表明,酵母细胞壁多糖对促进齐口裂腹鱼生长效果最好,而枯草芽孢杆菌对提高鱼类的免疫功能最好。
英文摘要:
      Developing effective and safe immunostimulants is a primary means for improving the immunity and disease resistance of Schizothorax prenanti. This study evaluated the effects of three immunostimulants (Bacillus subtilis, yeast cell wall polysaccharides, and autolyzed yeast) on the growth performance and immunity of S. prenanti, aiming to provide theoretical evidence for the application of immunostimulants to artificial culture, resource exploitation and feed research of S. prenanti. A total of 360 S. prenanti individuals with initial weight (61.12±1.37) g were selected for the test. Three immunostimulant treatment groups and a control group were set for the feeding trial, with treatments administered as a dietary supplement at three levels (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%). Each trial was conducted in triplicate and the experiment lasted 90 d. Data on final weight, weight gain ratio (WGR, %), specific growth ratio (SGR, %/d) and feed conversion ratio (FCR, %) of S. prenanti were determined after test fish had gone without feeding for 24h. At the end of the trial, six individuals from each trial were selected randomly for determination of immune parameters, including lysozyme (LSZ), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). The WGR and SGR for S. prenanti in the Bacillus subtilis group and yeast cell wall polysaccharide group increased significantly compared to the control group (P<0.05), but growth enhancement was more evident in the latter group. The food conversion ratio (FCR) for the two treatments decreased compared to the control group. Dietary supplementation with autolyzed yeast did not significantly affect S. prenanti growth, but significantly decreased the FCR. Among the different levels of supplementation, the 0.3% yeast cell wall polysaccharides treatment significantly increased WGR and SGR compared to the two lower treatment levels, while the Bacillus subtilis and autolyzed yeast treatment levels did not produce significant differences. Activities of LSZ and SOD in S. prenanti were significantly higher in all treatment groups than those in the control group (P < 0.05), with the highest levels〔 (3.93 ± 0.35) μg/mL and (153.34 ± 1.50) μg/mg〕 observed in the Bacillus subtilis group. However, the activity of ALP in the three experimental groups was not significantly different from that in the control group and there was no significant difference between groups at different treatment levels. The ACP activities of the yeast cell wall polysaccharides group and autolyzed yeast group at 0.1% treatment levels were significantly lower than in the control group (P<0.05), while ACP activities of the three groups treated at the 0.3% level were all higher than in the control group (P<0.05). In conclusion, yeast cell wall polysaccharides significantly promoted the growth performance of S. prenanti, while Bacillus subtilis was the most effective immunostimulant for S. prenanti.
杨军,冯德品,董舰峰,张金平,王哲,吴昊,何志刚,顾泽茂.2019.免疫增强剂对齐口裂腹鱼生长性能和免疫功能的影响[J].水生态学杂志,40(5):78-83.
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