四川华鳊胚胎发育观察
Embryonic Development of Sinibrama taeeniatus
投稿时间:2017-10-27  修订日期:2019-09-18
中文关键词:四川华鳊  胚胎发育  人工授精
英文关键词:Sinibrama taeniatus  embryonic development  artificial fertilization
基金项目:四川省大渡河安谷水电站鱼类保护专题研究项目(AG2012/S-46-C);四川省淡水鱼创新团队-大水面增殖与生态养殖技术研发集成与应用岗位
作者单位E-mail
李青芝 四川省农业科学院水产研究所四川 成都 611731 514537411@qq.com 
李 华 四川省农业科学院水产研究所四川 成都 611731 52001593@qq.com 
陈彦伶 四川省农业科学院水产研究所四川 成都 611731 474986680@qq.com 
张宏伟 武汉中科瑞华生态科技股份有限公司湖北 武汉 430000 564694139@qq.com 
杨焕超 四川省农业科学院水产研究所四川 成都 611731 471809141@qq.com 
黄 晋 中国水电建设集团圣达水电有限公司四川 乐山 614000  
邓旭艳 中电建水电开发集团有限公司四川 成都 610000  
杜 军 四川省农业科学院水产研究所四川 成都 611731 dujun9100@126.com 
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中文摘要:
      四川华鳊(Sinibrama taeniatus)是长江上游特有的小型鱼类,近年来受采砂、水利工程建设、环境污染和滥捕等多种因素影响,其资源量持续下降,本研究旨在探明四川华鳊胚胎发育规律,为后续人工繁育提供参考。从2014年5月起,在大渡河下游流域收集四川华鳊亲鱼进行池塘人工驯化培育,2016年8月筛选出90尾雌鱼,体重(60.40±7.83)g,全长(16.28±0.62) cm)和30尾雄鱼,体重(31.93±3.77)g,全长(13.90±0.64)cm,进行人工催产和人工干法授精,在溶氧充足的微流水中孵化胚胎,水温变化范围控制在22.3~23.0℃,用体视显微镜对不同发育阶段的胚胎细胞进行连续观察和记录。结果表明,四川华鳊在池塘驯养条件下性腺发育成熟可开展人工繁殖,受精卵呈圆球形,浅黄色,具弱粘性,吸水后卵径为(2.11±0.04)mm,卵周间隙为(0.72±0.01)mm;在水温(22.0±0.7)℃的条件下,受精卵发育经过42 h 21 min孵化,总积温931.7℃?h,发育过程可分为受精卵胚盘、卵裂、囊胚、原肠胚、神经胚、器官形成以及孵化出膜7个阶段;初孵仔鱼全长(2.91±0.05)mm,肌节数为24对,具心跳和血液循环,仔鱼静卧水底,极少活动,偶尔窜游。四川华鳊胚胎发育与亲源关系最近的鲂属鱼类表现出很大的一致性,该研究为四川华鳊的规模化人工繁育及其他长江上游特有鱼类的资源增殖保护和开发利用提供了理论参考。
英文摘要:
      Sinibrama taeeniatus is a small fish endemic to the upper reaches of the Yangtze River. In recent years, wild populations of S. taeeniatus have declined sharply as a result of cascaded hydropower stations, sand excavation, over fishing and environment pollution. In this study, the embryonic development of S. taeeniatus under controlled laboratory conditions was described and illustrated. Parental stock was collected in the lower reaches of Dadu River in May 2014 and pond reared. In late August 2016, 90 females (16.28±0.62 cm, 60.40±7.83 g) and 30 males (13.90±0.64 cm, 31.93±3.77 g) were treated with oxytocin to induce spawning. Zygotes were obtained by dry fertilization and incubated under slowly running water at 22.3-23.0 °C and adequate dissolved oxygen. A stereoscopic microscope was used to observe and record embryonic development from fertilization to larval release from the membrane. Results show that the gonads of S. taeeniatus matured during pond domestication and artificial reproduction could be carried out. The fertilized eggs were ovate and yellow, demersal and weakly glutinous, with an average diameter of (2.11±0.04)mm and average perivitelline space of(0.72±0.01)mm after swelling. The entire embryonic development period was 42 h, 21 min at (22.0±0.7)℃and the maximum cumulative temperature was 931.7 °C ?h. The embryonic development process consisted of seven stages:fertilized egg, cleavage, blastula, gastrula, neurula, organ development and the release of newly hatched larvae from the membrane. The newly hatched larva were (2.91±0.05)mm, had 24 sarcomeres and blood circulation and heart pulsation began. The eyes of the larva were pale black and the head was perpendicular to the body. The larva reposed at the bottom of the water and displayed little activity. The embryonic development of S. taeeniatus was highly similar to that of its closest Megalobrama relatives. This study provides basic information for large-scale artificial breeding of S. taeeniatus as well as resource protection and utilization of a species endemic to the Yangtze River.
李青芝,李 华,陈彦伶,张宏伟,杨焕超,黄 晋,邓旭艳,杜 军.2019.四川华鳊胚胎发育观察[J].水生态学杂志,40(6):106-110.
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