中国国家级水产种质资源保护区建设及其发展趋势分析
Study on establishment and expansion of national aquatic germplasm reserves in China
投稿时间:2017-10-14  修订日期:2019-09-12
中文关键词:国家级水产种质资源保护区  生物多样性保护  种质资源分布
英文关键词:national aquatic germplasm reserve  biodiversity protection  germplasm distribution  
基金项目:中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项(CAFYBB2017SY044)
作者单位E-mail
郭子良 中国林业科学研究院湿地研究所, 北京 100091
湿地生态功能与恢复北京市重点实验室, 北京, 100091
河北衡水湖湿地生态系统国家定位观测研究站, 衡水, 053000 
shengtai2007@126.com 
张曼胤 中国林业科学研究院湿地研究所, 北京 100091
湿地生态功能与恢复北京市重点实验室, 北京, 100091
河北衡水湖湿地生态系统国家定位观测研究站, 衡水, 053000 
cneco@126.com 
崔丽娟 中国林业科学研究院湿地研究所, 北京 100091
湿地生态功能与恢复北京市重点实验室, 北京, 100091
 
lkyclj@126.com 
王贺年 中国林业科学研究院湿地研究所, 北京 100091
湿地生态功能与恢复北京市重点实验室, 北京, 100091
河北衡水湖湿地生态系统国家定位观测研究站, 衡水, 053000 
wanghenian2006@126.com 
杨思 中国林业科学研究院湿地研究所, 北京 100091
湿地生态功能与恢复北京市重点实验室, 北京, 100091
河北衡水湖湿地生态系统国家定位观测研究站, 衡水, 053000 
6275353@qq.com 
王大安 中国林业科学研究院湿地研究所, 北京 100091
湿地生态功能与恢复北京市重点实验室, 北京, 100091
河北衡水湖湿地生态系统国家定位观测研究站, 衡水, 053000 
daan_wang@mail.bnu.edu.cn 
李梦洁 中国林业科学研究院湿地研究所, 北京 100091
 
993288528@qq.com 
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中文摘要:
      分析国家级水产种质资源保护区的建设现状、地理分布格局和发展趋势,为水产种质资源的保护管理提供依据。分析指标为水产种质资源保护区的建设数量、建设规模、空间分布格局、聚集程度。研究表明,我国已建国家级水产种质资源保护区492个,初步构建了包括各类湿地和水域的保护区网络;不同类型国家级水产种质资源保护区建设数量差异较大,且面积普遍偏小;河流和淡水湖泊类型保护区的数量占总数的83.14%,以鱼类及栖息地保护为重点,缺少对两栖动物、爬行动物和水生植物等的保护;保护区聚集度指数为0.72,呈高度聚集分布格局,集中分布在湘北-鄂东南-皖赣边界、苏南-浙北和川东等地。保护区快速建设期接近尾声,未来应加强其规范化建设和管理,优化保护区网络。
英文摘要:
      Aquatic germplasm resources are the material basis of fishery production and important for conserving biological diversity, and therefore directly affects national ecological security. As a result, protection and management of aquatic germplasm resources have received increasing attention in China. A large number of aquatic germplasm reserves have been established in recent years and are one of the most important means of protecting aquatic germplasm resources and ensuring ecological security. In this study, we analyzed the status quo, geographical distribution pattern, degree of aggregation and growth trends of national aquatic germplasm reserves in China. The analysis, based on data collected from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of the People’s Republic of China, will provide information to guide conservation of aquatic germplasm resources in the future. GIS10.0 and the unevenness index were used for the analysis. The aquatic germplasm reserve network, made up of 492 national aquatic germplasm reserves, includes different types of wetland and waters (lakes, rivers and coastal wetlands). The national aquatic germplasm reserves covered all aquatic organisms and their habitats, including benthic animals, amphibians and aquatic plants. However, the number of national aquatic germplasm reserves varied greatly by type and the area of individual aquatic germplasm reserves was generally small. River and freshwater lake types accounted for 83.14% of national aquatic germplasm reserves, primarily involving the protection of fish biodiversity/habitat and reserves for protecting amphibians, reptiles and aquatic plants are not yet adequate. In addition, the geographical distribution of national aquatic germplasm reserves was dramatically different among provinces and river basins. The number and area of aquatic germplasm reserves were highly aggregated (degree of aggregation, 0.72), primarily distributed in northern Hunan, southeastern Hubei, the border area of Anhui and Jiangxi, southern Jiangsu, northern Zhejiang, and eastern Sichuan. In terms of river basins, there were 220 national aquatic germplasm reserves along the Yangtze River basin, significantly higher than in other basins. The number and area of national aquatic germplasm reserves in China have grown exponentially during the past decade and the reserves have rescued many important aquatic germplasm resources. However, there are still many problems associated with the construction of aquatic germplasm reserves: sub-optimal reserve type, protection gaps and the highly concentrated distribution. In the future, management of aquatic germplasm reserves should be strengthened and construction should be more standardized, strategic and focused on optimizing the aquatic germplasm reserve network.
郭子良,张曼胤,崔丽娟,王贺年,杨思,王大安,李梦洁.2019.中国国家级水产种质资源保护区建设及其发展趋势分析[J].水生态学杂志,40(5):112-118.
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