黑水河鱼类优先保护次序的定量分析
Quantitative Analysis of Conservation Priority for Fish Species in Heishui River
投稿时间:2017-08-11  修订日期:2018-11-15
中文关键词:黑水河  优先保护  特有鱼类
英文关键词:Heishui River  fish conservation priority  endemic fish  
基金项目:国家重点研发计划重点专项(2016YFC0502210)。
作者单位E-mail
宋一清 上海勘测设计研究院有限公司上海 200434中国科学院水生生物研究所湖北 武汉 430072 y-tsing@163.com 
成必新 上海勘测设计研究院有限公司上海 200434 chengbixin@163.com 
胡伟 上海勘测设计研究院有限公司上海 200434 hw@sidri.com 
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中文摘要:
      在金沙江下游干流大规模水电开发的背景下,干流开发与支流保护是生态环境保护的有效措施;黑水河是白鹤滩库区鱼类的优先保护支流,确定其鱼类优先保护次序和保护物种是进行鱼类栖息地修复和保护工作的首要任务和前提基础。在野外调查和查阅相关文献资料的基础上,运用濒危系数、遗传价值系数和物种价值系数对黑水河35种鱼类进行优先保护次序的定量分析,并结合黑水河栖息地实际情况,确定保护目标鱼类。结果显示,达到黑水河一级保护的鱼类只有1种,为长江上游特有鱼类长薄鳅(Leptobotia elongata);达到二级保护的种类有12种,其中昆明裂腹鱼(Schizothorax grahami)、黄石爬鮡(Euchiloglanis kishinouyei)、短须裂腹鱼(Schizothorax wangchiachii)和长鳍吻鮈(Rhinogobio ventralis)为长江上游特有鱼类;处于三级保护的鱼类有17种,其中钝吻棒花鱼(Abbottina obtusirostris)和张氏?(Hemiculter tchangi)是长江上游特有鱼类;四级保护鱼类有5种,其中短体副鳅(Paracobitis potanini)为长江上游特有鱼类,评价结果基本反映了黑水河鱼类的实际情况。结合白鹤滩水库蓄水后黑水河栖息地生境改变的情况,最终确定昆明裂腹鱼、黄石爬鮡、短须裂腹鱼为黑水河栖息地修复和保护的目标鱼类,长薄鳅和长鳍吻鮈为备选保护鱼类。
英文摘要:
      The lower reaches of Jinsha River support a large variety of aquatic organisms and provide critical habitat for fish species endemic to the upper Yangtze River. The four-cascaded dams (Wudongde, Baihetan, Xiluodu and Xiangjia dams) constructed on the lower Jinsha River will disrupt riverine connectivity and threaten fish resources. Given the large-scale hydropower development on the lower Jinsha River, developing the mainstream and protecting its tributaries can provide an effective means of protecting biodiversity. Heishui River is the primary habitat for fish in the Baihetan Reservoir area. In this study, the conservation priority order of 35 fish species in Heishui River was quantitatively analyzed by combining species distribution, degree of endangerment and protection status with measures of ecological and economic value. Fish species were targeted for protection based on conservation priority order and the existing condition of fish habitat in Heishui River. Data were based on a field investigation of fish resources conducted in May 2017 and literature research. Based on the resulting scores, the 35 species were assigned to four protection classes. Only one species (Leptobotia elongata), met the first-grade protection standard. Twelve species met the second-grade protection standard, including four endemic species (Schizothorax grahami, Euchiloglanis kishinouyei, Schizothorax wangchiachii, and Rhinogobio ventralis). Seventeen species met the third-grade protection standard, including two endemic species (Abbottina obtusirostris and Abbottina obtusirostris) and five species were classified as fourth-grade protection species, including one endemic species (Paracobitis potanini). The priority conservation order reflects the status of fish resources in Heishui River, but impoundment of Baihetan Reservoir dramatically changed habitat conditions. The habitat is now a combination of slow flow and lentic environments, so fish species adapted to static conditions are not considered for protected status. Endemic species that are rheophilic and produces adhesive eggs, including S. grahami, E. kishinouyei, and S. wangchiachii, have been targeted for protection. Endemic rheophilic species that produce drifting eggs, including L. elongate and R. ventralis, need longer river sections to complete life history and have been classed as alternative species. This study provides fundamental knowledge that will support effective fish resource conservation and eco-restoration of Heishui River. The restored Heishui River will provide habitat for rheophilic fish species from Jinsha River after construction of the cascaded dams is complete.
宋一清,成必新,胡伟.2018.黑水河鱼类优先保护次序的定量分析[J].水生态学杂志,39(6):65-72.
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