流溪河水厂坝丹尼尔式鱼道运行效果初探
Effectiveness of the Denil Fishway, Liuxi River at the Water Plant Dam
投稿时间:2017-05-27  修订日期:2019-01-15
中文关键词:丹尼尔式鱼道  运行效果  流溪河
英文关键词:Denil fishway  fishway operating efficiency  Liuxi River  fishery diversity
基金项目:广州市科技计划项目(201804010202)
作者单位E-mail
何贞俊 珠江水利科学研究院广东 广州 510611 sdmoweijun@163.com 
莫伟均 珠江水利科学研究院广东 广州 510611 306190201@qq.com 
杨 聿 珠江水利科学研究院广东 广州 510611  
谭细畅 珠江水资源保护科学研究所广东 广州 510611 743744100@qq.com 
张艳艳 珠江水利科学研究院广东 广州 510611 574629197@qq.com 
吕文斌 珠江水利科学研究院广东 广州 510611  
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中文摘要:
      为检验广东省流溪河水厂坝建立的丹尼尔式鱼道试点工程效果。在2015-2016年鱼道主要过鱼季节4-10月,利用张网法逐日监测。结果显示,鱼道取样共采集906尾,隶属于3目、8科、32属、34种,体长范围5~74 cm,优势种为尼罗罗非鱼(Tilapia niloticus)(占比51.10%)、?(Hemiculter leucisculus)(占比16.23%)、唇鱼骨(Hemibarbus labeo)(占比8.17%)、银鮈(Squalidus argentatus)(占比6.73%)、东方墨头鱼(Garra orientalis)(占比1.55%),以定居型鱼类为主,未见河口洄游性鱼类。水温与上游水位是影响鱼类种类时间上分布的主要环境因素。聚类分析表明,6月过鱼群体的种类和数量独成一类,与其他月份鱼类群体最不相似。虽然Shannon多样性指数在5月和6月分别为2.068和1.719,但总体偏低(1.451±0.535),而Margalef丰富度指数差别较小,表明不同鱼类对鱼道入口的感应存在种间差异, 推测是由工程全段翻滚闸门下泄水流导致鱼道入口不易发现所致。研究表明,丹尼尔式鱼道试点工程效果较好,为该河段的绝大部分鱼类提供了上溯通道,对流溪河构建整体过鱼设施体系起到了良好的示范作用,有助于流溪河生态系统的健康与恢复。
英文摘要:
      Liuxi River is the main river in Guangzhou City. While the fishery is highly diverse, the 11 dams and sluices constructed on the 156 km river channel have seriously segmented the river and pose a barrier for fish migration. In 2013, an obsolete shiplock at the water plant dam was transformed into the Denil fishway as a pilot for fish passage construction on the Liuxi River. In August, September and October 2015 and April, May, June and July 2016, daily monitoring of fish passage effieciency was carried out in the Denil fishway by setting a net at the outlet of the fishway. The objective of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of fishway construction on the Liuxi River and provide a reference for reconnecting the river and restoring the ecology. The fish catch was recorded at 8:00 each day and fish were identified by species, body length and body weight were measured, and water temperature and upstream water level were recorded. A total of 906 fish were collected during the monitoring period, with a body length range of 5-74 cm. The collected fish represented 34 species, 32 genera, 8 families and 3 orders. The dominant species was Tilapia niloticus (51.10 %), followed by Hemiculter leucisculus (16.23%), Hemibarbus labeo (8.17%), Squalidus argentatus (6.73%) and Garra orientalis (1.55%). In terms of ecological type, the fish were dominated by sedentary species and no estuarine migratory fish were observed. The temporal distribution of fish was affected by both water temperature and upstream water level. Cluster analysis shows that the fish population in June was an independent group, displaying significant differences in species number and total number of fish compared to other months. There were also large monthly variations in the Shannon diversity and Margalef richness indices, while monthly variations in the Pielou evenness index were small. The Shannon diversity indices (2.068, 1.719, 1.627), Margalef richness indices (3.164, 3.467, 3.172) and Pielou evenness indices (0.730, 0.565, 0.574) in May, June and July were relatively high. Our research shows that the Denil fishway provides upstream passage for most species in the section investigated and supports ecological restoration of the Liuxi River. This pilot project is a good model for the construction of a complete fish passage system for the Liuxi River.
何贞俊,莫伟均,杨 聿,谭细畅,张艳艳,吕文斌.2019.流溪河水厂坝丹尼尔式鱼道运行效果初探[J].水生态学杂志,40(1):35-40.
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