刺苦草对铜胁迫的耐受性及其恢复能力研究
Tolerance and Recovery Capability of Vallisneria spinulosa Exposed to Copper
投稿时间:2017-05-25  修订日期:2018-09-15
中文关键词:刺苦草  重金属  耐受性  恢复能力  
英文关键词:Vallisneria spinulosa  heavy metal  tolerance  recovery  copper
基金项目:江西省水工程安全与资源高效利用工程研究中心开放基金(OF201611),水利部鄱阳湖水资源水生态环境研究中心开放基金(ZXKT201511),江西省科技计划项目(20161BBG70048)。
作者单位E-mail
陈璐 南昌工程学院,江西省水工程安全与资源高效利用工程研究中心,江西 南昌 330099
 
1030719643@qq.com 
李威 南昌工程学院,江西省水工程安全与资源高效利用工程研究中心,江西 南昌 330099
 
liwei@nit.edu.cn 
王 敏 南昌工程学院,江西省水工程安全与资源高效利用工程研究中心,江西 南昌 330099
 
 
高桂青 南昌工程学院,江西省水工程安全与资源高效利用工程研究中心,江西 南昌 330099
 
 
周际海 南昌工程学院,江西省水工程安全与资源高效利用工程研究中心,江西 南昌 330099
 
 
樊后保 南昌工程学院,江西省水工程安全与资源高效利用工程研究中心,江西 南昌 330099
 
 
钟家有 江西省水利科学研究院,水利部鄱阳湖水资源水生态环境研究中心,江西 南昌 330029  
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中文摘要:
      采用沉水植物对低浓度铜(Cu)污染的水体进行生态修复被认为是一种经济、安全、有效的方法。以鄱阳湖分布较为广泛的刺苦草(Vallisneria spinulosa)为研究对象,设置4个Cu2+添加梯度,对照组(CK)为(0.007±0.012)mg/L,试验组(T1)为Cu2+浓度为(0.400±0.026)mg/L,试验组(T2)为(0.830±0.010)mg/L,试验组(T3)为(1.697±0.055)mg/L;处理1周后彻底换水,使其进行为期2周的恢复生长,探究铜胁迫及解除后刺苦草地上部分、地下部分生长状况的变化及其对Cu2+的富集效果。结果表明,不同浓度Cu2+处理对刺苦草生长产生了严重的胁迫作用,试验组地上部分长度、鲜重和叶绿素含量均显著低于对照组;刺苦草对水体Cu2+的去除率在前4天平均为63%,各处理组水体Cu2+含量均显著下降;刺苦草地上部分Cu2+含量随水中Cu2+含量的增加而显著上升,T3组刺苦草地上部分Cu2+含量达到(3.68±0.32)mg/g,约为T1处理组的6.4倍,地下部分Cu2+含量则没有显著差异;刺苦草Cu2+化学计量内稳性较差,其指数(1/H)约为1.09。在解除Cu2+胁迫后的恢复阶段,T1、T2和T3地上部分Cu2+含量相对于胁迫阶段分别下降了43.04%、92.12%和86.00%,地下部分分别下降了57.91%、42.70%和33.81%,而刺苦草鲜重、叶绿素含量及地下部分Cu2+含量则没有显著差异。研究表明,刺苦草是一个较理想的Cu2+超富集植物,铜胁迫解除后具有一定的恢复能力。(1)刺苦草对Cu2+的耐受浓度和富集量都较高,Cu2+胁迫对刺苦草的生长产生了较强的抑制作用;胁迫解除后,刺苦草具有一定的恢复能力,Cu2+浓度为1.7 mg/L条件下,刺苦草恢复最差;刺苦草是低浓度Cu2+污染条件下较好的超富集植物。 (2)刺苦草Cu2+化学计量内稳性较弱,体内Cu2+含量与水体Cu2+含量成正比;胁迫解除后,刺苦草富集的Cu2+能够重新释放到水体中;在利用刺苦草修复Cu2+污染水体时,需要对其及时收割和补种,以免造成二次污染。
英文摘要:
      The use of submerged macrophytes in ecological restoration of water polluted by low levels of copper is economic, safe and effective. In this study, Vallisneria spinulosa, a submerged macrophyte widely distributed in Poyang Lake, was selected for study. The tolerance of V. spinulosa to low levels of Cu2+ and the ability of V. spinulosa to recover from Cu2+ exposure were investigated in a laboratory study, aiming to evaluate the potential of using submerged macrophytes for restoring polluted waters. V. spinulosa was planted in aquaria and exposed to copper for one week at four concentrations: a control group CK (0.007±0.012 mg/L) and three treatment groups; T1 (0.400±0.026 mg/L), T2 (0.830±0.010 mg/L) and T3 (1.697±0.055 mg/L). The copper containing water was then exchanged for tap water and the plants were monitored for an additional two weeks to investigate recovery ability. After the experiment, the wet weight, length, Cu2+ content of V. spinulosa roots and shoots, chlorophyll content of leaves and Cu2+ concentration of water were determined. Copper significantly inhibited V. spinulosa growth. The length, wet weight and chlorophyll content of V. spinulosa in all copper treatments were significant lower than the control. In the treatment groups, the average removal rate of copper by V. spinulosa was 63% on day 4, significantly higher than the control. The copper content of V. spinulosa shoots increased with copper concentration in the water. After exposure for one week, the copper content in T3 was (3.68±0.32) mg/g, 6.4 times higher than in T1. However, the copper concentration in roots did not vary among treatments. The stoichiometric homeostasis index (1/H) of V. spinulosa for copper was 1.09, indicating weak stoichiometric homeostasis for copper. During recovery, the copper content in groups T1, T2 and T3 decreased, respectively, by 43.04%, 92.12% and 86.00% in shoots and 57.91%, 42.70% and 33.81% in roots. Wet weight, chlorophyll content and copper content of roots did not differ among treatments. This study indicates that V. spinulosa is a copper hyperaccumulator with strong capacity for recovery after exposure to copper. However, to support restoration efficiency, V. spinulosa should be harvested promptly and replanted during restoration of copper polluted water.
陈璐,李威,王 敏,高桂青,周际海,樊后保,钟家有.2018.刺苦草对铜胁迫的耐受性及其恢复能力研究[J].水生态学杂志,39(5):104-110.
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