湟水流域水生态保护与修复研究
Study on the Overall Framework of Water Ecological Protection and Restoration of Huang River Basin
投稿时间:2017-05-23  修订日期:2017-11-22
中文关键词:湟水  水生态保护与修复  湿地  鱼类栖息地
英文关键词:Huangshui River, aquatic ecosystem protection and restoration, wetland, fish habitat
基金项目:
作者单位E-mail
李云成 水利部水资源司北京100053 liyc@mwr.gov.cn 
王瑞玲 黄河水资源保护科学研究院河南 郑州 45000 1428644826@qq.com 
娄广艳 黄河水资源保护科学研究院河南 郑州 45000 snowwhitelou@126.com 
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中文摘要:
      研究湟水流域水生态现状和保护与修复措施,加强湟水流域水生态保护,维持黄河尤其是黄河上游流域及我国青藏高原和黄土高原—川滇生态屏障生态安全。湟水干流、大通河梯级开发集中,河流纵向连通性遭到严重破坏,且大部分水电站是引水式小水电站,枯水期水电站下游河道脱流现象严重,河流水流连续性及横向连通性遭到破坏,河流生态功能严重下降。根据国家及黄河流域对湟水流域生态保护定位及要求,在湟水流域水生态状况评价及问题识别的基础上,明确各区域(河段)水生态保护目标,提出了湟水上中下游水生态保护与修复总体布局、重要断面生态需水指标及保障措施和重要湿地、重要鱼类栖息地等保护与修复措施体系。
英文摘要:
      The Huangshui River basin, with diverse habitat types and important ecological resources, is located in the ecological transition zone between the Tibetan Plateau and Chinese Loess Plateau. Studying the status of aquatic ecosystems in the Huangshui River basin is crucial for strengthening water quality protection and maintaining the ecological integrity of the Yellow River, particularly the upper Yellow River, the Tibetan Plateau of China and the Loess Plateau that forms the Sichuan Yunnan ecological barrier. During a three-year study (2008-2011), we analyzed the status and existing water quality problems in the Huangshui River basin. The study was a comprehensive investigation of river ecology, water quality, habitat of protected fish species, wetlands and evolution rules. Results show that water pollution in the Huangshui River basin is serious. Of the 36 water sub-basins, 11 did not meet standards, mainly in Huangshui River sections below Xinning, the Beichuan River and Xining section of Nanchuan River. The habitat of native fish species has been seriously damaged and the number of species has dramatically decreased. Historical data documents a total of 29 fish species in Huangshui River basin and 19 species in the main stem of Huangshui River. During this three year investigation only 10 species were observed. The wetland area in the river basin is decreasing, thus reducing important wetland functions, such as water conservation and biodiversity protection. Centralized and cascaded hydropower development on Datong River and Huangshui River has seriously damaged the vertical connectivity of the river. Most of the hydropower stations are small water diversion hydropower stations. During the dry season, lack of flow in the river channel interrupts flow continuity and horizontal connectivity, disrupting the ecological function of the river. Based on national targets for ecological protection in Huangshui River basin and the results of our investigation, we propose comprehensive protection and ecological restoration of the entire Huangshui River, upper, middle and lower. Recommended actions include the use of ecological indicators and safeguarding of important sections, protection and restoration of wetlands and fish habitat, and rational hydropower development on the Huangshui and Datong Rivers that incorporates natural reserves, conservation areas for source water and habitat conservation areas for rare and endangered fish species.
李云成,王瑞玲,娄广艳.2017.湟水流域水生态保护与修复研究[J].水生态学杂志,38(6):11-18.
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