雅砻江硬刺松潘裸鲤的胚胎及仔鱼发育研究
Embryonic and Larval Development of Gymnocypris potanini firmispinatus in Yalong River
投稿时间:2017-05-22  修订日期:2018-09-14
中文关键词:硬刺松潘裸鲤  胚胎发育  仔鱼发育  雅砻江
英文关键词:Gymnocypris potanini firmispinatus  embryonic development  larval development  Yalong River
基金项目:中国水产科学研究院基本科研业务费资助项目(2016JBF0303);雅砻江流域水电开发有限公司科研项目(JPIA-G201225)。
作者单位E-mail
徐 滨 中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所农业部淡水生物多样性保护重点实验室 武汉 430223 xubin@yfi.ac.cn 
魏开金 中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所农业部淡水生物多样性保护重点实验室 武汉 430223 weikj@yfi.ac.cn 
朱祥云 中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所农业部淡水生物多样性保护重点实验室 武汉 430223 zxy@yfi.ac.cn 
甘维熊 雅砻江流域水电开发有限公司 成都 610015 xubin@yfi.ac.cn 
邓龙君 雅砻江流域水电开发有限公司 成都 610015 xubin@yfi.ac.cn 
徐 进 中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所农业部淡水生物多样性保护重点实验室 武汉 430223 xubin@yfi.ac.cn 
马宝珊 中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所农业部淡水生物多样性保护重点实验室 武汉 430223 xubin@yfi.ac.cn 
郭 峰 中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所农业部淡水生物多样性保护重点实验室 武汉 430223 xubin@yfi.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      研究硬刺松潘裸鲤(Gymnocypris potanini firmispinatus)早期生活史阶段的发育规律,为松潘裸鲤的亚种分化、规模化人工繁殖和苗种培育提供理论依据。松潘裸鲤亲鱼采自雅砻江支流安宁河流域。雌鱼6~13龄,全长12.1~24.2 cm,体重16.1~115.8g;雄鱼3~9龄,全长8.2~14.5cm,体重5.2~23.8g。结果显示,硬刺松潘裸鲤受精卵呈圆形,黄色,卵径(2.82±0.10)mm;水温(16±1)℃下,硬刺松潘裸鲤的胚胎发育历时183 h 45 min,胚胎发育过程成分为受精卵、胚盘形成、卵裂、囊胚、原肠、神经胚、器官分化和出膜共8个阶段、31个时期;出膜仔鱼全长(7.82±0.19)mm;出膜10d后,仔鱼的鳃、口、胸鳍、尾鳍、鳔、肠道等功能器官先后形成;出膜13 d后卵黄囊消失,全长(14.33±0.51)mm;出膜40 d后各鳍基本长成,体型和体色接近成鱼,进入幼鱼阶段。硬刺松潘裸鲤为地区重要的小型经济鱼类,主要分布在雅江中游各大干支流中,在形态和生态上形成一系列的适应性,早期发育过程与其栖息的环境同样具有一定的适应性。
英文摘要:
      Gymnocypris potanini firmispinatus is an indigenous cold-water fish inhabiting the Jinsha River. The development of cascaded hydropower stations, overfishing and environment pollution have resulted in sharp declines in wild populations of G. p. firmispinatus. In this paper, we describe and illustrate the embryonic/larval development of G. p. firmispinatus and compare its morphology and early-stage growth characteristics with other Schizothoracinae species. The objective was to provide theoretical evidence for large-scale artificial reproduction and seedling cultivation. Parental stock was collected from Yalong River from July, 2015 to February, 2016, with the following characteristics: age (female, 6-13 yr; male 3-9 yr), total length (female, 12.1-24.2 cm; male, 8.2-14.5 cm), body weight (female, 16.1-115.8 g; male, 5.2-23.8 g). The zygotes were obtained by dry fertilization, and the incubation of zygotes and the culture of yolk-sac larvae were conducted under controlled conditions: temperature, 16±1℃; dissolved oxygen, >7.0mg/L. At least 30 zygotes and 10 larvae were sampled during the development period and the development sequence and primary morphological characteristics of each stage were recorded. Results show that fertilized eggs were ovate and yellow, with an average diameter of (2.82±0.10) mm. The entire embryonic development period was 183 h 45 min at (16±1)℃and the maximum cumulative temperature was 2889 h℃. The development process consisted of eight stages: egg fertilization, blastoderm formation, cleavage, blastula, gastrula, neurula, organ development and release of newly hatched larvae from the membrane. The average total length of newly hatched larvae was (7.8±0.19) mm. Approximately 10 days after hatching, the gill, mouth, pectoral fin, tail fin, swim bladder, intestinal tract and other organs gradually developed. Yolk-sac absorption was complete after day 13, when the average total length of the larvae reached (14.33±0.5) mm. Forty days after hatching,all fins were formed and body shape and color were similar to adults, indicating that the G. p. firmispinatus hatchlings had developed into juveniles. G. p. firmispinatus is primarily distributed in the stem and tributaries of the middle Yalong River and exhibits a series of morphological and ecological adaptations to its habitat. In this study, we found that the early development of G. p. firmispinatus also presents certain adaptations to the habitat.stage.
徐 滨,魏开金,朱祥云,甘维熊,邓龙君,徐 进,马宝珊,郭 峰.2018.雅砻江硬刺松潘裸鲤的胚胎及仔鱼发育研究[J].水生态学杂志,39(5):67-75.
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