菱角对农村富营养化水体营养盐吸收的初步研究
Nutrient Absorption by Trapa bispinosa from Eutrophic Ponds in Rural Areas
投稿时间:2017-04-23  修订日期:2018-01-20
中文关键词:菱角  富营养化  植物修复  营养盐
英文关键词:Trapa bispinosa  eutrophication  phytoremediation  nutrients
基金项目:广东省科技计划项目(2013B090400017);广东省扬帆计划重点人才工程(C0035000);2013年扬帆计划引进创新团队项目(201312H10);阳江市科技计划项目(2016)。
作者单位E-mail
司圆圆 阳江职业技术学院广东 阳江 529500 251405427@qq.com 
卢王梯 阳江职业技术学院广东 阳江 529500 983516495@qq.com 
陈兴汉 阳江职业技术学院广东 阳江 529500 251405427@qq.com 
关则智 阳江职业技术学院广东 阳江 529500 983516495@qq.com 
叶芬 绿泉蔬菜种植合作社广东 阳江 529500 983516495@qq.com 
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中文摘要:
      为探究浮叶植物对农村富营养化废水中营养盐的去除效果,选定华龙村4个典型水塘,以人工种植菱角(Trapa bispinosa)为试验对象,研究菱角对富营养化水体中总氮(TN)、硝态氮(NO3--N)、氨态氮(NH4+-N)、总磷(TP)及化学需氧量(CODcr)的净化能力。结果表明,经过75 d的试验研究,试验区水塘的TN、NH4+-N和NO3--N的浓度分别从55mg/L、25 mg/L和3 mg/L降至13 mg/L、4.3 mg/L和2.1 mg/L,去除效率分别为62.3%、74.5%和23.5%,TP及CODcr的浓度从3.3 mg/L和120 mg/L分别降至1.4 mg/L和52 mg/L,去除效率为56.6%、19.1%,对照区水塘各营养元素去除率较低。菱角对农村废水中的N、P有一定的吸收作用,对重度富营养化水质,水生植物优先吸收NH4+-N,对TN的去除影响较大;NO3--N的去除主要依靠微生物的反硝化作用;TP的吸收需要更长的时间。菱角对重度富营养化农村废水营养盐的去除具有重要意义,且可以取得一定的经济效益。本研究为应用水生植物处理农村生活污水中的营养盐提供科学依据。
英文摘要:
      In recent years, water pollution in rural areas has become increasingly prominent in China. From April to June of 2016, we carried out a water treatment project using Trapa bispinosa in four eutrophic ponds in Hualong village of Yangjiang City, Guangdong Province. The ability of T. bispinosa to remove nutrients was investigated to explore the potential of floating-leaved plants for treatment of eutrophic ponds and find new ways of treating sewage in rural areas. Plant agriculture and aquaculture are the primary industries in Hualong village and large loads of nutrients (C, N, P) flow directly into the ponds due to the lack of a sewage collection system and water treatment facilities, resulting in eutrophication and deterioration of water quality. Four typical ponds (No. 1-4, average area 1 330 m2) that receive sewage were selected for the experiment and no sewage was discharged into the ponds during the experiment. On March 20, T. bispinosa was planted in ponds 1 and 2 and ponds 3 and 4 acted as controls. The experimental period was 75 days and on day 1, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 water samples were collected 20-30 cm below the surface at 10 sites from each pond for determination of total nitrogen (TN), nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N), ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N), total phosphorus (TP) and chemical oxygen demand (CODcr). The concentrations of TN, NH4+-N, NO3--N, in the experiment ponds decreased, respectively, from 55 mg/L, 25 mg/L and 3 mg/L to 13 mg/L, 4.3 mg/ , L2.1 mg/L (decreases of 62.3%, 74.5% and 23.5%). The levels of TP and CODcr decreased from 3.3 mg/L and 120 mg/L to 1.45 mg/L and 52.5 mg/L (decreases of 569% and 56.3%). The decreases in nutrient levels in the control ponds were much lower. T. bispinosa absorbs nutrients from wastewater-contaminated ponds. The aquatic plants readily absorbed NH4+-N and had a pronounced effect on TN removal. The removal of NO3--N primarily depended on denitrification by microorganisms and the absorption of TP is much slower than that of TN. In summary, it is feasible to remove nutrients from eutrophic water using T. bispinosa and there are economic benefits. The study provides a scientific basis for the use of aquatic plants to remove nutrients from ponds receiving rural domestic wastewater.
司圆圆,卢王梯,陈兴汉,关则智,叶芬.2018.菱角对农村富营养化水体营养盐吸收的初步研究[J].水生态学杂志,39(1):32-36.
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