中东大西洋中部海域中上层鱼类资源结构与渔场分布
Pelagic Fish Resource Structure and Distribution in the Eastern Central Atlantic
投稿时间:2017-03-27  修订日期:2017-07-13
中文关键词:FAO34渔区  中上层鱼类  资源结构  渔场分布  渔捞数据
英文关键词:FAO Fishing Area 34  pelagic fish  resource structure  fishing ground distribution  catch data
基金项目:国家科技支撑计划课题-大洋性渔业捕捞技术与新资源开发(2013BAD13B05)
作者单位E-mail
逄志伟 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所农业部海洋渔业资源可持续利用重点实验室山东 青岛 266071 pangzw@ysfri.ac.cn 
张鹏 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所农业部海洋渔业资源可持续利用重点实验室山东 青岛 266071 zhangpeng@ysfri.ac.cn 
李显森 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所农业部海洋渔业资源可持续利用重点实验室山东 青岛 266071 lixs@ysfri.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      为了解中东大西洋中部海域中上层鱼类资源结构与渔场分布,对2007—2014年入渔FAO34渔区,3.11和1.32小区(毛里塔尼亚专属经济区)从事中上层鱼类捕捞的7艘国内渔船的生产数据进行了分析。结果表明:我国入渔船只数量、入渔渔船总产量和作业渔船平均日产量均呈现先增加后减少的趋势,且在2011年入渔渔船总产量和作业渔船平均日产量到达最大值,2012年入渔船只数量到达最大值。渔获种类主要包括沙丁鱼(Sardina pilchardus)、短体小沙丁鱼(Sardinella maderensis)、金色小沙丁鱼(Sardinella aurita)、日本鲭(Scomber japonicus)、竹筴鱼(Trachurus trachurus)等,各渔获种类渔获量年际间波动较为明显。月均网次产量在17.2~23.6 t/haul,最高值和最低值分别出现在12月和8月;月均总产量在1 279.0~2 414.2 t,最高值和最低值分别出现在1月和8月,12月至次年3月为渔汛旺期。渔场季节变化现象明显,夏秋季向北移动,冬春季向南移动,20.0°N ~20.8°N、17.4°W~18.0°W区域为高产量海域。该海域中上层鱼类洄游现象明显,这可能主要与该海域的不同洋流在不同月份的强弱变化有关。该海域整体渔业资源出现一定衰退现象,建议渔船入渔该海域从事中上层鱼类捕捞持谨慎态度,并加强该海域渔业资源的研究与保护以实现该海域中上层鱼类可持续利用。
英文摘要:
      Pelagic fishery resources in the Eastern Central Atlantic Ocean are very rich, but there has been little fishery research in this area of China. To increase understanding of fishery resource structure and distribution in this area, we analyzed the catch data of seven Chinese fishing vessels trawling the area from 2007 to 2014. Results will also provide a scientific reference and evidence for developing sustainable exploitation of fishery resources for the area. The vessels were all fishing in subdivision 3.11 and 1.32 of FAO Fishing Area 34. The database developed includes trawling dates, longitude and latitude, species composition of each catch, water depth at which fish were caught and catch per haul. The number and total catch of each fishing vessel and the average daily catch for each vessel increased at first and then decreased from 2007 to 2014. The total and average daily catch reached the maximum in 2011 and the number of fishing vessels peaked in 2012. Fish catches were primarily composed of Sardina pilchardus, Sardinella maderensis, Sardinella aurita, Scomber japonicus and Trachurus trachurus, with evident fluctuations among species and years. The operating time of the fishing vessels in the Eastern Central Atlantic Ocean was from January to August and November to December each year. The average monthly catch fluctuated between 17.2 and 23.6 t/haul and was highest in December and lowest in August. The total monthly catch varied between 1279.0 and 2414.2 t and was highest in January and lowest in August. The most productive harvest season for this area was from December to the next March. The annually high-yield area was in the range of 20.0° N to 20.8° N and 17.4° W to18.0° W. However, seasonal variation of the fishing ground was clear; fish moved northward from summer to autumn and then back after winter. This migration pattern is likely related to variations of ocean current and changes in temperature with season. As fishery resources gradually declined in this area, a precautionary approach should be taken in allowing the fleet access to pelagic fishing and fishery research and conservation measures should be strengthened to achieve sustainable development of fishery resources in this area.
逄志伟,张鹏,李显森.2017.中东大西洋中部海域中上层鱼类资源结构与渔场分布[J].水生态学杂志,38(6):57-63.
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