电厂温排水对水生生物影响评价综述
Review of the impact assessment of thermal discharges from power plants on aquatic biota
投稿时间:2016-12-18  修订日期:2018-04-04
中文关键词:电厂  温排水  水生生物  水生态系统  环境影响评价  直流冷却水系统
英文关键词:Power plant  Thermal discharge  Aquatic biota  Aquatic ecosystem  Environmental impact assessment  Once-through cooling system
基金项目:
作者单位E-mail
魏新渝 环境保护部核与辐射安全中心 weixinyu2004@163.com 
王一川 环境保护部核与辐射安全中心 wangyichuan@chinansc.cn 
张琨 环境保护部核与辐射安全中心 zhangkun@chinansc.cn 
方圆 环境保护部核与辐射安全中心 fangyuan@chinansc.cn 
熊小伟 环境保护部核与辐射安全中心 46026@163.com 
商照荣 环境保护部核与辐射安全中心 Shangzhaorong@chinansc.cn 
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中文摘要:
      首先总结温排水对水生生物和生态系统的一般性影响;介绍我国和美国四个不同环境背景的大型电厂温排水对当地水生生物的影响;分析厂址特定因素和环境背景的影响;讨论电厂温排水影响评价存在的问题。可以看出,(1)温排水可能会影响水生生物的生长、生存和繁殖,改变群落的多样性和丰度,并可能导致栖息地的变化,但影响性质和程度各不相同;(2)温排水对水生生物的潜在影响程度与厂址特定因素包括地理位置、受纳水体是海水还是淡水、受纳水体的体积、水交换速率、栖息地等密切相关;(3)为了准确评价温排水的影响,我国首先应根据不同海域、流域或湖泊的特点,选择出代表性重要水生生物并进行热影响研究,为不同流域、湖泊、海域温度基准的制定奠定基础;应尽快制定温排水环境影响评价导则,使得温排水限值能够满足国家水体质量标准,确保受纳水体中平衡土著的贝类、鱼类和野生生物种群的生长和繁育,并且已考虑了温排水与所有其他对物种重要影响(包括杀生剂的影响、取水卷吸效应的影响、过度捕捞、其他污染源的排放等)的累积影响。
英文摘要:
      General Effects of thermal Discharges on aquatic biota and ecosystems were summarized. Four large power generating stations in different environmental settings (marine coastal embayment, Great Lake, and freshwater river) were selected to study the potential impacts of their thermal discharges on the local aquatic biota. Influences of site-specific factors and environmental settings on thermal effects were analyzed. The current situations and problems of assessing the impacts of thermal discharges from power plants were also discussed. It was found that (1) the thermal discharges may affect aquatic species growth, survival, and reproduction, alter community diversity and density, and may have led to shifts in ecological habitat. The character and magnitude of the observed impacts varied among power plants, however. (2) Several site-specific factors may be important in determining the magnitude of potential impacts, including: geographic location, marine vs. freshwater environments, volume of receiving water, rate of water exchange, and local habitats. (3) In order to accurately characterizing the influence of thermal discharges, the first thing for China is to select the representative important species (RIS) in different seas, rivers, and lakes and then study the potential influences of thermal discharges on RIS. These study data will help to develop the temperature criteria for different rivers, lakes and seas. In addition, the guideline for environmental impact assessment of thermal discharge should be made as soon as possible, so that the temperature limits of thermal discharge can meet the national water quality standard, ensure the projection and propagation of a balanced, indigenous population of shellfish, fish and wildlife in and on the body of water into which the discharge is to be made, and have considered the cumulative impact of its thermal discharge together with all other significant impacts (biocide, entrainment and impingement of water intake, overfishing, other sources of pollution, etc.) on the species affected.
魏新渝,王一川,张琨,方圆,熊小伟,商照荣.2018.电厂温排水对水生生物影响评价综述[J].水生态学杂志,39(2):1-10.
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