电厂温排水对水生生物影响评价综述
Review of Impact Assessments of Thermal Discharges from Power Plants on Aquatic Biota
投稿时间:2016-12-18  修订日期:2018-04-04
中文关键词:电厂  温排水  水生生物  水生态系统  影响评价  直流冷却水系统
英文关键词:power plant  thermal discharge  aquatic biota  aquatic ecosystem  impact assessment  once-through cooling system.
基金项目:
作者单位E-mail
魏新渝 环境保护部核与辐射安全中心北京 100082 weixinyu2004@163.com 
王一川 环境保护部核与辐射安全中心北京 100082 wangyichuan@chinansc.cn 
张琨 环境保护部核与辐射安全中心北京 100082 zhangkun@chinansc.cn 
党煜钦 环境保护部核与辐射安全中心北京 100082  
熊小伟 环境保护部核与辐射安全中心北京 100082 46026@163.com 
商照荣 环境保护部核与辐射安全中心北京 100082 Shangzhaorong@chinansc.cn 
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中文摘要:
      总结温排水对水生生物和生态系统的一般性影响;介绍我国和美国4个不同环境背景的大型电厂温排水对当地水生生物的影响;分析厂址特定因素和环境背景的影响;讨论电厂温排水影响评价存在的问题。(1)温排水可能会影响水生生物的生长、生存和繁殖,改变群落的多样性和丰度,并可能导致栖息地的变化,但影响性质和程度各不相同;(2)温排水对水生生物的潜在影响程度与厂址特定因素包括地理位置、受纳水体是海水还是淡水、受纳水体的体积、水交换速率、生物栖息地等密切相关;(3)为了准确评价温排水的影响,我国首先应根据不同海域、流域或湖泊的特点,选择出代表性重要水生生物并进行热影响研究,为不同流域、湖泊、海域温度基准的制定奠定基础;应尽快制定温排水环境影响评价导则,使得温排水限值能够满足国家水体质量标准,确保受纳水体中平衡土著的贝类、鱼类和野生生物种群的生长和繁育,并且已考虑了温排水与所有其他对物种重要影响(包括杀生剂的影响、取水卷吸效应的影响、过度捕捞、其他污染源的排放等)的累积影响。
英文摘要:
      Power plants that use once-through cooling system require large amounts of water from oceans lakes or rivers, and a lot of thermal discharges are produced. The generalized environmental impacts of thermal discharges on aquatic biota are summarized. Four large power-generating stations in three environmental settings (marine coastal embayment, great lake, and freshwater river) were selected to study potential impacts of thermal discharges on aquatic biota. Effects of site-specific factors and the environmental setting on thermal effects were analyzed and the current situation, and remaining challenges for assessing these impacts were discussed. The review lead to three primary conclusions: (1) Thermal discharges could affect the growth, survival and reproduction of aquatic species by altering community diversity and density, and producing shifts in ecological habitats. The characteristics and magnitude of the observed impacts varied among the four power plants. (2) Several site-specific factors affect the magnitude of impacts; geographic features, marine vs. freshwater system, discharge volume, water exchange rate of the receiving water body, and the local habitat. (3) Accurately characterizing thermal discharge impacts begins with selection of representative important species (RIS) and the species chosen depend on the ecosystem impacted; ocean, river or lake. Potential effects of thermal discharges on the RIS are then studied and the results are used to develop temperature criteria for the receiving water. The thermal discharge criteria should be determined early in the process so that thermal discharge parameters meeting national water quality standards can be developed to ensure the growth and propagation of indigenous populations of shellfish, fish and wildlife. Finally, the cumulative impact of thermal discharge with other significant impacts (biocides, entrainment or impingement of organisms at water intake, overfishing, site-specific pollutants, etc.) on the RIS must be considered in the making of thermal discharge limit.
魏新渝,王一川,张琨,党煜钦,熊小伟,商照荣.2018.电厂温排水对水生生物影响评价综述[J].水生态学杂志,39(2):1-10.
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