三峡水库汛期运行对长江干支流浮游植物的影响
Impact of the Operation of Three Gorges Reservoir during Wet Season on Phytoplankton in Main Stem of Yangtze River and Its Tributaries
投稿时间:2016-11-15  修订日期:2018-09-14
中文关键词:三峡水库  汛期运行  长江干流  支流  浮游植物
英文关键词:Three Gorges Reservoir  operation in wet season  main stem of Yangtze River  tributary  phytoplankton  variation
基金项目:国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(2009ZX07528-003)。
作者单位E-mail
朱爱民 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所 水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室武汉 430079 zham@mail.ihe.ac.cn 
程郁春 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所 水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室武汉 430079  
周连凤 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所 水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室武汉 430079  
李嗣新 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所 水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室武汉 430079  
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中文摘要:
      为了探究三峡水库175 m蓄水后工程运行对库区浮游植物影响,于汛期对长江干流及其25条支流浮游植物进行了调查,长江干流上游至下游共设朱沱、丰收坝、寸滩等13个采样点;綦江、嘉陵江、五布河等25条长江支流共设94个采样点。结果表明:(1)干流145 m淹没河段,硅藻种类比例明显降低,蓝藻、绿藻、甲藻、隐藻种类比例明显升高,但主要种类组成仍为硅藻-绿藻-蓝藻型;现存量升高不明显,硅藻比例明显降低、蓝藻比例明显升高;出现蓝藻优势种类且占比最高,硅藻优势种类占比下降,但仍为最高优势度种类,且其最高优势度基本不变;浮游植物Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H′)、Pielou均匀性指数(J)下降不明显;(2)145 m未淹没支流,175 m淹没河段重新恢复为自然河流状态,其浮游植物群落也恢复到自然河流状态;(3)145 m淹没支流河口,浮游植物种类组成特点明显改变;现存量明显升高,其组成发生较大变化;硅藻优势种类占比、最高优势度明显下降,绿藻、蓝藻、隐藻、甲藻等优势种类相应升高;H′和J明显降低;(4)从上游至下游,干流和25条支流河口硅藻种类比例由最高到最低变化,蓝藻、绿藻种类比例由较低到最高变化。
英文摘要:
      In order to study the influence of 175 m impundment project operation on phytoplankton, the phytoplankton was investigated during wet season in main stem of Yangtze River and its 25 tributaries in the Three Gorges Reservoir. In this research, thirteen sampling points was set in the main stem of Yangtze river and ninty-four in the tributaries. Both qualitative and quantative samples of phytoplankton were collected and the work of species identification was done with microscope, and Shannon-Wiener diversity indices, Pielou evenness indices and the species dominance were calculated. Results show that: (1) Compared to the unsubmerged reaches when the water level was 145 m, in backwater area (145m) of Yangtze River, bacillariophyta species proportion obviously decreased, and cyanophyta, chlorophyta, pyrrophyta and cryptophytaspecies proportion obviously increased, but species composition dominated by bacillariophya, chlorophyta and cyanophyta was not changed. And standingcrop increased not obviously. However, bacillariophyta species proportion obviously decreased and cyanophyta species proportion obviously increased. In dominant species, the propotion of cyanophyta was the highest, bacillariophyta propotion declined, and the dominance of bacillariophyta remained the same as the inflooded reaches. The H′ (Shannon-Wiener diversity index) and J of (Pelon evenness index)of phytoplankton declined not obviously. (2) The flooded reaches when water level of the Three George Reservoir was 175 m and inflooded (145 m) tributaries were restored to natural river state again, and correspondingly phytoplankton community were restored to natural river state. (3) phytoplankton species composition changed obviously in the estuary of flooded(145m) tributaries. Compared to the inflooded reaches when the water level was 175m, the standingcrop increased obviously and composition was changed greatly. In dominant species, bacillariophyta propotion and the highest dominance declined obviously, chlorophyta, cyanophyta, pyrrophyta and cryptophyta propotions increased corespondingly.The H′ and J of phytoplankton declined obviously. (4) From upstream to downstream, in main stem of Yangtze River and estuary of 25 tributaries, bacillariophyta species proportion were changing from the highest to lowest, and cyanophyta and chlorophytaspecies proportion were changing from the lower to the highest.
朱爱民,程郁春,周连凤,李嗣新.2018.三峡水库汛期运行对长江干支流浮游植物的影响[J].水生态学杂志,39(5):22-30.
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