湛江红树林湿地水体重金属污染评价及来源分析
Heavy Metal Pollution Assessment and Source Analysis in the Water of Zhanjiang Mangrove Swamp
投稿时间:2016-11-08  修订日期:2017-02-19
中文关键词:红树林湿地  重金属  污染  主成分分析  湛江
英文关键词:mangrove swamp  heavy metals  pollution  principal component analysis  Zhanjiang City
基金项目:国家科技支撑计划项目(2012BAC07B04)。
作者单位E-mail
刘静 北京市农林科学院植物营养与资源研究所北京100091中国科学院生态环境研究中心城市与区域国家重点实验室北京100085 liujing9712@163.com 
马克明 中国科学院生态环境研究中心城市与区域国家重点实验室北京100085 ecology_ma@126.com 
曲来叶 中国科学院生态环境研究中心城市与区域国家重点实验室北京100085 lyqu@rcees.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      通过研究湛江红树林湿地水体重金属的含量、空间分布特征和来源及环境因子的影响,旨在为红树林湿地保护提供理论依据。选取湛江市范围内10处红树林湿地、共38个采样点,其中廉江(样点1~6)、遂溪(样点7~10)、雷州西海岸(样点11~12)、徐闻五里(样点13~16)、徐闻和安(样点17~21)、雷州东海岸(样点22~25)、麻章(样点26~29)、坡头(样点30~32)、霞山特呈岛(样点33~35)、东海岛(样点36~38),采集各样点水面下0.5 m处的3个混合水样用于理化指标测定,利用水质质量指数法对Cr、Cu、Pb、Cd、Ni、Hg 6种重金属的污染水平进行综合评价;利用最小显著差异检验(LSD)进行单因素方差分析,比较不同研究区域水体重金属及理化性质差异;利用主成分分析判断湛江红树林湿地水体重金属的来源,并基于其特征值(>1)判断主成分,并判断每个主成分中载荷量大的因子。结果表明,研究区水体中Fe、Mn、Cu、Cr、Cd、Pb、Ni和Hg等重金属含量较低,各区县水质综合污染指数平均值均小于1,除了霞山特呈岛、雷州东西海岸的个别样点外,总体上未出现明显的重金属污染;重金属单因子污染指数显示Cu和Ni污染问题相对突出。主成分分析结果显示,Fe和Cr为自然来源,Hg、Pb和Cu与人类活动中农业生产和生活污水排放密切有关,Mn、Ni和Cd主要来自工业综合污染。重金属与水体环境因子的RDA分析表明,TOC和pH是影响水体重金属分布的显著性因子。
英文摘要:
      Mangrove swamps are vital ecosystems in tropical and subtropical intertidal zones, playing an important role in the maintenance of ecological integrity and biodiversity, water resource conservation and weather regulation in coastal cities. Heavy metal contamination in mangrove swamps has become a matter of concern. In order to protect the mangrove swamp in Zhanjiang City and support local economic development and environmental conservation, we investigated the concentration, spatial distribution, sources and factors influencing heavy metal pollution in the mangrove swamp districts of Zhanjiang. Thirty-eight sampling sites were located in ten mangrove swamp districts; six sites in Lianjiang, four sites in Suixi, two sites on the west coast of Leizhou, four sites on the east coast of Leizhou, four sites in Wuli of Xuwen and five sites in Hean of Xuwen, four sites in Mazhang and three sites in Potou, Techeng island and Donghai island. Three water samples were collected at 0.5m below the surface at each site and then mixed to give a composite sample for determination of eight heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni and Hg), as well as total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN). The pH, DO, water temperature, salinity and conductivity of the water were measured in situ. The comprehensive heavy metal pollution level was calculated using the water quality index method. Spatial differences of heavy metals and the physicochemical properties of water in the different areas were analyzed using least significant difference. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify sources of heavy metals and redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to identify factors influencing heavy metals in the mangrove swamp. Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cr, Cd and Hg were low, with mean concentrations respectively of (91.14±10.88), (78.88±10.65), (8.07±0.59), (4.96±0.44), (0.77±0.07), (0.72±0.05), (0.16±0.03), (0.03±0.01) μg/L. Single-factor and integrated pollution indices of the heavy metals both indicate light heavy metal pollution in the waters of Zhanjiang mangrove swamp, except for a few individual sites in the Techeng island and Leizhou districts, where Cu and Ni were the metals of concern. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that Fe and Cr content is controlled by weathering of parent rock, Hg, Pb and Cu are closely related to agricultural activities and sewage discharge, and Mn, Ni and Cd are contributed primarily by mining and heavy industry. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that TOC and pH are the primary environmental factors associated with heavy metal pollution, displaying significant positive correlations with Mn and Ni and positive correlations with the other heavy metals.
刘静,马克明,曲来叶.2018.湛江红树林湿地水体重金属污染评价及来源分析[J].水生态学杂志,39(1):23-31.
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