邛海鱼类资源与空间分布的水声学调查探究
Hydroacoustic Assessment of Fishery Resource and Spatial Distribution in Qionghai Lake of Xichang, Sichuan
投稿时间:2016-07-14  修订日期:2019-01-11
中文关键词:鱼类资源  空间分布  水声学  邛海
英文关键词:fish biomass  fish density  spatial distribution  hydroacoustics  Qionghai Lake
基金项目:邛海生态渔业规划项目
作者单位E-mail
孔德平 云南省高原湖泊流域污染过程与管理重点实验室云南省环境科学研究院云南 昆明 650034 kongdeping@yies.org.cn 
秦涛 中国科学院昆明动物研究所云南 昆明 650223中国科学院东南亚生物多样性研究中心缅甸 内比都 05282 qintao@mail.kiz.ac.cn 
范亦农 云南省高原湖泊流域污染过程与管理重点实验室云南省环境科学研究院云南 昆明 650034 fanyncnkm@vip.sina.com 
陈小勇 中国科学院昆明动物研究所云南 昆明 650223中国科学院东南亚生物多样性研究中心缅甸 内比都 05282 chenxy@mail.kiz.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      2013年12月和2015年9月,运用科学回声探测仪对邛海的鱼类资源量、空间分布进行了水声学法走航调查评估与分析。野外调查同时采用三层刺网、地笼等网具采样,结合湖岸鱼市及访问渔民等方式,对邛海现有鱼类组成进行分类整理。结果显示,邛海土著鱼类资源稀缺,太湖新银鱼(Neosalanx taihuensis)、鲢(Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)、鳙(Hypophthalmichthys nobilis)、鲤(Cyprinus carpio)、鲫(Carassius auratus)、?(Hemiculter leucisculus)、红鳍原鲌(Cultrichthys erythropterus)等外来种为邛海鱼类优势种。2013年和2015年,邛海湖区鱼类平均密度分别为(0.1483±0.0715)尾/m3和(0.1051±0.0279)尾/m3,鱼类资源量分别为4.67×107 尾和2.90×107 尾;体长在13.3 cm以上的鱼类资源量分别为9.9×106 尾和7.6×106 尾。邛海鱼类水平方向主要集中分布于月亮湾-青龙寺以及青龙寺-邛海湾断面,垂直方向主要分布在中上层,且极显著高于底层(P<0.01);整体上看,2013年和2015年的调查表明,邛海鱼类的空间分布情况基本一致,4个调查断面及不同水层的鱼类种群分布类型均趋于成群分布(v>1)。初步认为邛海鱼类水平分布差异主要是游客休闲娱乐、沿岸居民农业生产等人为干扰以及不同区域水深变化引起的,垂直水层分布差异与优势种鱼类的生态习性紧密相关。
英文摘要:
      Fishery resource assessment based on hydroacoustics is an important technique for researching fish behavior and population dynamics, and for fishery resource assessment and management. It is low cost, efficient, accurate and provides continuous data with no harm to fish. We investigated fish biomass and spatial distribution in Qionghai Lake, Xichang City, using hydroacoustic monitoring to support fishery management, tourism development and protect the ecology of Qionghai Lake. Acoustic surveys of the fishery resource were conducted on December 4, 2013 and September 20, 2015 using a Biosonics DT-X scientific echo-sounder system equipped with a 200 kHz split-beam transducer. The hydroacoustic route length was ~ 20 km, at an average speed of ~5km/h, following zigzag paths over four lake sections. The fish number and density in the upper (1-7 m), middle (7-13 m), and lower (13-19 m) water layers were calculated based on the integrated echo intensity. During the acoustic monitoring period, a fishery resource survey was also conducted by trawling with a gill net and interviewing fishermen. All fish catches were counted and identified, and the length and weight of each specimen was measured. A total of 386 individuals representing 13 species was collected, dominated by non-native and commercial fish species including Neosalanx taihuensis, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, Cyprinus carpio, Carassius auratus, Hemiculter leucisculus, and Cultrichthys erythropterus. The native fish resources have declined markedly in Qionghai Lake. In 2013 and 2015, the average densities were (0.1483±0.0715) ind/m3 and (0.1051±0.0279) ind/m3 and total fish numbered 4.67×107 and 2.90×107. In 2013, fish of body length 2.4-7.5 cm dominated (59.9%), while in 2015, fish of body length 4.2-13.3 cm dominated (56.3%). The number of fish of body length >13.3 cm totaled 9.9×106 in 2013 and 7.6×106 in 2015. Echogram analysis indicated that fish density and spatial distribution were similar in 2013 and 2015. The fish community occurred in groups within the four sections investigated and different water layers (? >1). Horizontally, the population was concentrated at Moon Bay, Qinglong Temple and Qionghai Bay. Vertically, the fish population was primarily distributed in the upper and middle layers, significantly higher than in the bottom layer (p < 0.01). Differences in the horizontal distribution were due to human disturbance, while differences in the vertical distribution were closely related to the habit preferences of dominant fish species.
孔德平,秦涛,范亦农,陈小勇.2019.邛海鱼类资源与空间分布的水声学调查探究[J].水生态学杂志,40(1):22-29.
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