陕西瀛湖富营养化特征与控制对策
Eutrophication Characterization and Control Strategies in Yinhu Lake of Shaanxi Province
投稿时间:2016-07-14  修订日期:2017-09-18
中文关键词:瀛湖  综合营养指数  富营养化  水华
英文关键词:Yinhu Lake  comprehensive trophic level index (TLI)  eutrophication  algae bloom
基金项目:国家良好湖泊专项瀛湖湖泊生态环境保护项目;陕西省社会发展科技攻关项目(2015SF293)
作者单位E-mail
王彤 长安大学环境科学与工程学院西安 710054 894496318@qq.com 
张玲 长安大学环境科学与工程学院西安 710054 1250677484@qq.com 
李英杰 陕西省环境科学研究院西安 710061 hkyliyingjie@126.com 
沈海燕 陕西省安康市汉滨区环保局安康 725000 1250677484@qq.com 
邓彦 陕西省环境科学研究院西安 710061 1250677484@qq.com 
江维 长安大学环境科学与工程学院西安 710054 1250677484@qq.com 
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中文摘要:
      陕西省安康瀛湖是南水北调中线工程丹江口水库的重要水源,随着社会经济的发展和人类活动的加剧,2001年开始出现水华。为保护其水生态环境,依据2015年实测数据,采用综合营养指数法对瀛湖水体进行富营养化评价。结果表明:(1)瀛湖目前年均综合营养指数为43.78,整体上处于中营养水平,总磷、总氮和叶绿素a对综合营养指数的贡献率最大,合计达到78.34%; (2)瀛湖水体TP、TN的浓度分别为0.2 mg/L、1.2mg/L,从营养盐水平上看,已处于富营养化状态,存在暴发大面积水华的风险;(3)瀛湖各采样点的综合营养状态指数在39.58~46.31,相差不大,总氮、总磷的营养指数在整个湖区也比较均匀,表明总氮和总磷污染物来自安康市汉滨区以上更为上游的汉江流域;(4)基于瀛湖湖泊生态特点,结合当地社会经济发展状况,建议瀛湖选择适宜的渔业发展模式,形成健康的水生生态系统结构,探究瀛湖热分层规律,优化大坝水调度方案,实施全流域环境-经济协同管理战略,削减入湖污染物。
英文摘要:
      Yinhu Lake in Shaanxi Province is an important water resource of Danjiangkou Reservoir, part of the middle route of the south-north water diversion project. With economic development and intensification of human activities, eutrophication problems in Yinhu Lake have intensified, and the frequency, duration and area of algae blooms are increasing year by year since the first bloom occurred in 2001. Thus, research on eutrophication and influencing factors is important for protecting lake water quality. In late January, April, July and early December of 2015, field investigation of water quality was carried out at 16 sampling sites in Yinhu Lake. Water samples were collected for determination of CODMn, TP, TN and Chl-a, and transparency and pH were measured in situ. Eutrophication characteristics and control strategies were explored based on the monitoring data. The comprehensive trophic level index TLI (Σ) was used for eutrophication assessment. Results show that: (1) the average annual TLI of Yinhu Lake was 43.78, implying the lake is mesotrophic. The trophic level of Yinhu Lake varied with season, with the highest TLI (53.08) in July and the lowest TLI (31.77) in January. The combined contribution of TP, TN and Chl-a to the TLI was 78.34%. The correlation coefficients between TLI and Chl-a, TP, TN, transparency and CODMn were, respectively, 0.88, 0.55, 0.02, -0.45 and 0.72; TP and CODMn are the limiting factors of eutrophication in Yinhu Lake. (2) The concentrations of TP (0.2 mg/L) and TN (1.2 mg/L) in Yinhu Lake are high, indicating a high risk of large scale algae blooms. (3) The range of TLI over all the sampling sites was 39.58-46.31 and differences among sites were not significant, nor was there significant difference between the nutrient indices for TN and TP. Hence, we can infer that pollution from the upper Hanjiang River basin, above Hanbin, is the main source of TN and TP to Yinhu Lake. (4) Based on the ecological characteristics of Yinhu Lake and the economic development condition in the local area, three recommendations are made for the ecological management of Yinhu Lake: (1) explore fishery development patterns that result in an healthy aquatic ecosystem structure; (2) optimize reservoir operations based on thermal stratification; (3) reduce pollutant emissions and use environmental economics to guide management of the entire river basin.
王彤,张玲,李英杰,沈海燕,邓彦,江维.2017.陕西瀛湖富营养化特征与控制对策[J].水生态学杂志,38(5):29-34.
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