率水河大鲵放流效果及影响因素分析
Evaluation of the Effect of releasing Giant Salamanders into the Shuaishui River
投稿时间:2016-06-29  修订日期:2017-03-21
中文关键词:大鲵  增殖放流  黄山种群  影响因子  率水河
英文关键词:Andrias davidianus  propagation and release  Huangshan population  impact factors  Shuaishui River
基金项目:安徽省财政厅学科建设“水产珍稀动物大鲵繁育与健康养殖技术研究(15A0504)”;农业部物种资源保护项目“大鲵增殖放流效果评估和跟踪监测”
作者单位E-mail
林衍峰 安徽省休宁县水产站 休宁 245400 linyf@yeah.net 
甘成叙 安徽省休宁县水产站 休宁 245400 759342734@qq.com 
王永杰 安徽省农业科学院水产研究所合肥 230031 hfwangyongjie@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      为评估率水河黄山种群大鲵(Andrias davidianus) 人工增殖放流效果,探究制约放流效果的主要影响因子,为调整增殖放流方案提供依据, 2011-2016年对24个放流点的放流情况、河段特征、水质、水文、饵料生物、管护措施和人类干扰因素进行连续跟踪监测。结果显示,24个放流点有11处放流成功、5处有效、8处失败,率水河大鲵已开始形成自然繁殖种群,资源总量持续增长。各放流点生境基本相同,河床由基岩、砾石和粗砂组成,河道中建有多级灌溉碣坝和电站拦河坝,水深0.3~2.1 m,流速0.12~0.96 m/s,一年中绝大部分时间达到Ⅰ类地表水标准(GB3838-2002)。河岸为基岩、砂砾、干垒块石、浆砌块石、混凝土、钢丝石笼等结构,岸坡30~85°,土质大鲵洞穴开口隐蔽于沿岸石缝或杨树根须中,沿岸植被主要有杨树、毛竹、茶园、常绿混交林夹杂灌木丛等类型,盖度均大于95%。研究表明,率水河大鲵放流效果主要受放流季节、放流点附近有无支流、管护措施、水工建筑等因子影响;最佳放流时间为9月末至12月初,地点应选择在有较长支流的河口附近,有高大杨树或有较多缝隙的石质、砾石质岸堤河段,以分散投放18~30 cm规格的2龄苗种为宜。建议拆除部分拦河坝,将混凝土和石笼护岸逐步改造成适宜大鲵生存的干垒块石护岸,对放流苗种和野生种群进行基因检测,植入电子标签开展标志放流,防止外来基因污染。人工繁殖
英文摘要:
      The Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus) is a Class Ⅱ protected species of wild animal in China. The Huangshan A. davidianus population has unique genetic characteristics and has been artificially propagated and released into the Shuaishui River since 2011. To provide a scientific basis for enhancing and increasing propagation, we evaluated the effect of artificial propagation and release of A. davidianus to the Shuaishui River and analyzed key factors that restrict propagation and affect release. Stocking condition and environmental geological characteristic of the 24 release sites were monitored each year from 2011 to 2016 and included the quantity and age composition of the captured giant salamanders, water quality, hydrology and habitat characteristics of the release river sections, biomass of food organisms, protection measures and human disturbance. In September and October of each year, our research team went to the release river section and talked with the local fishermen to investigate the A. davidianus resource and extent of poaching, and to evaluate protection measures. Giant salamander specimens were captured by cage and then released back to their original habitat after counting and calculating age. The water quality, hydrology and the habitat conditions were measured in situ and food organisms were captured using small nets for biomass determination. Results show that the habitats of each release location were similar. The river bed was composed of base rock, gravel and coarse sand with a water depth of 0.3-2.1 m and a normal water velocity of 0.12-0.96 m/s. The water met the class Ⅰ standards for surface water (GB3838-2002) for most of the year. There were multistage irrigation dams and the barrage of power station on the river. The riverbank was composed of base rock, gravel, dry stone, grouted rubble, concrete and steel mesh gabion and with the vegetation cover more than 95% and covered by poplar, bamboo, tea gardens, evergreen mixed forest and shrubs. The slope of the riverbank was ranged from 30 to 85 degrees. The entrance of earthy caves of the Chinese giant salamander on the riverbank were concealed among stones or under the roots of poplar trees. Of the 24 release sites, successful, effective, and failure cases of propagation numbered 11, 5 and 8, respectively. Chinese giant salamanders have formed a natural propagation population in Shuaishui River and the number of offspring continues to increase. The main influencing factors affecting release success included season, length of the river branch, protection measures and hydraulic structures. The results of our study suggest that the suitable release time is from late September to early November, suitable individuals for release are 2-year-old juveniles of length 18-30 cm and the suitable release location is a river reach near the estuary of a long tributary, with many tall poplars and rocks and gravels on the embankment. It is also recommended that a portion of concrete dams be removed and reconstructed with stone. The genetic information of the wild and released populations should be analyzed and electronic tags should be implanted into Chinese giant salamander fries.
林衍峰,甘成叙,王永杰.2017.率水河大鲵放流效果及影响因素分析[J].水生态学杂志,38(6):88-96.
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