湘江流域大型底栖动物群落结构及其与环境因子的关系
Macroinvertebrate Community Structure and Relationship with the Xiangjiang River Environmen
投稿时间:2016-05-23  修订日期:2018-04-08
中文关键词:底栖动物  环境因子  重金属  湘江流域
英文关键词:macroinvertebrate  environmental factors  heavy metal  Xiangjiang River
基金项目:湖南省生态学重点学科建设项目(0713);湖南省生物发育工程及新产品研发协同创新中心项目(20134486);湖南省环保科技资金2014年资助项目
作者单位E-mail
张琦 湖南师范大学生命科学学院长沙 410081 waneryunyi@sina.com 
王方鸣 湖南师范大学生命科学学院长沙 410081 940213199@qq.com 
罗岳平 湖南省环境监测中心站长沙 410001 shancunyelao@tom.com 
黄钟霆 湖南省环境监测中心站长沙 410001 hzt99091227@163.com 
黄河仙 .湖南省环境监测中心站长沙 410001 hhx1004@126.com 
胡树林 湖南省环境监测中心站长沙 410001 759537822@qq.com 
陈贝贝 湖南省环境监测中心站长沙 410001 chenbei410@163.com 
刘应迪 .湖南师范大学生命科学学院长沙 410081 lyd_000007@sina.com 
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中文摘要:
      采用野外调查的方法,结合Shannon多样性指数、Margalef物种丰富度指数、Pielou群落均匀度指数和冗余分析(RDA),研究了湘江流域底栖动物群落结构、多样性及其与环境因子的关系。结果表明,本次调查共采集底栖动物3门、6纲、15目、31科、43种。其中节肢动物22种,占51.16%;软体动物16种,占37.21%;环节动物5种,占11.63%。底栖动物优势种中的霍甫水丝蚓(Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri)、方格短沟蜷(Semisulcospira cancellata)和椭圆萝卜螺(Radix swinhoei)在流域内的分布具有显著的空间差异性(P﹤0.05)。底栖动物丰度和生物量在秋季最高、冬季最低。底栖动物丰度的空间差异、季节差异均显著(P<0.05),生物量的空间差异和季节差异均不显著。底栖动物群落的Shannon-Wienner指数(H′)、丰富度指数(dM)和均匀度指数(J)的平均值分别为1.5145、2.0635和0.7041;湘江航电枢纽的物种多样性最高,松柏最低。RDA分析表明,重金属Cu和Cr是影响湘江流域底栖动物群落结构的关键因子,其次为石油类、Se、pH、氟化物、CODMn、COD和Zn。从种类水平看,椭圆萝卜螺可以作为湘江重金属Cr的指示物种,霍甫水丝蚓对重金属Zn敏感,格氏短沟蜷(Semisulcospira gredleri)耐受重金属Cu,耐污种类多足摇蚊(Polypedilum sp.)与COD、石油类环境轴呈正相关,前突摇蚊(Procladius sp.)与CODMn环境轴呈正相关;敏感种类扁蜉(Heptageniidae sp.)、带角螺(Angulyagra annulatus)与氟化物、COD呈负相关,四节蜉(Baetidae sp.)、闪蚬(Corbicula nitens)与CODMn呈负相关;不耐重金属类群的日本沼虾(Macrobrachium nipponense)、纹石蛾(Hydropsychidae sp.)与Cu、Cr环境轴呈负相关。
英文摘要:
      The Xiangjiang River is one of the main tributaries of Yangtze River and is a primary source for industrial, domestic and irrigation water in Hunan Province, and is also important for navigation and fishery resources. Over the past 30 years, Xiangjiang River basin has suffered heavy pollution from heavy metals and organic contaminants. Assessments of community structure, dominant species, and the temporal-spatial variation and biodiversity of macroinvertebrates is crucial for monitoring water quality and evaluating the health of aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we explored the structure and temporal-spatial dynamics of the macroinvertebrate community in Xiangjiang River based on fieldwork carried out during 2014-2015. The relationship between community structure, macroinvertebrate diversity and environmental factors in the Xiangjiang River was analyzed by combining redundancy analysis (RDA) with Shannon-Wiener diversity, Margalef richness and Pielou evenness indices. The study provides basic data on the ecology of the Xiangjiang River basin and supports the improvement and promotion of water quality in the Xiangjiang River. Macroinvertebrate sampling was carried out at seven sites (S1-Zhugemiao; S2-Guiyang; S3-Songbai; S4-Huangchaling; S5-Baishi; S6-Zhaoshan; S7-Xiangjiang navigation junction) along the Xiangjiang River in October (autumn) of 2014 and in January (winter), April (spring) and July (summer) of 2015. All specimens collected were identified by species and weighed (+0.0001g) and water quality parameters were measured. A total of 43 macroinvertebrate species, belonging to 31 families, 15 orders, 6 classes and 3 phyla, were collected during the investigation; 22 species (51.16% ) were arthropods, 16 species (37.21%) were mollusks, and 5 species (11.63%) were annelids. The distributions of dominant species (Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri, Semisulcospira cancellata and Radix swinhoei) displayed significant spatial heterogeneity (P<0.05). The abundance and biomass of macroinvertebrate community both peaked in autumn and decreased to minimum values during the winter. The abundance of macroinvertebrates displayed significant spatial and seasonal differences (P<0.05), but differences in biomass were not significant. The average values of Shannon-Wiener diversity, Margalef richness and Pielou evenness indices were, respectively, 1.5145, 2.0635 and 0.7041. The biodiversity was highest at Xiangjiang navigation junction and lowest in the Songbai section. RDA shows that copper and chromium were the most important factors affecting community structure of macroinvertebrates. Petroleum, selenium, pH, fluoride, permanganate index (CODMn), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and zinc also significantly affected the community. At the species level, Radix swinhoei was the indicator species for chromium pollution in Xiangjiang River, Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri was sensitive to zinc and Semisulcospira gredleri was tolerant to copper. Furthermore, pollution tolerant species such as Polypedilum were positively correlated with COD and petroleum, and Procladius was positively correlated with CODMn. However, sensitive species such as Heptageniidae and Angulyagra annulatus were negatively correlated with fluoride and COD, and Baetidae and Corbicula nitens were negatively correlated with CODMn. Macrobrachium nipponense and Hydropsychidae were sensitive to heavy metals and were negatively correlated with copper and chromium.
张琦,王方鸣,罗岳平,黄钟霆,黄河仙,胡树林,陈贝贝,刘应迪.2018.湘江流域大型底栖动物群落结构及其与环境因子的关系[J].水生态学杂志,39(2):48-56.
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