滇池氮磷浓度变化对蓝、绿、硅藻年际变化的影响
Effect of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Concentrations on the Planktonic Algae Dynamics in Dianchi Lake
投稿时间:2016-04-21  修订日期:2018-01-19
中文关键词:滇池  蓝藻  绿藻    
英文关键词:Dianchi Lake, Cyanobacteria, Chlorophyta, nitrogen, phosphorus
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31300349)、云南省地方本科高校基础研究联合项目(2017FH001-026)、云南省科技厅应用基础研究计划项目(2011FZ175)、昆明学院人才引进项目、云南省高校优势特色重点学科(生态学)建设项目。
作者单位E-mail
侯秀丽 昆明学院生命科学与技术系 云南省高校特色生物资源开发与利用重点实验室昆明 650214 hxlyn@aliyun.com 
苑春刚 华北电力大学环境科学与工程系保定 071003  
李学平 昆明学院生命科学与技术系 云南省高校特色生物资源开发与利用重点实验室昆明 650214 947502096@qq.com 
任迎春 昆明学院生命科学与技术系 云南省高校特色生物资源开发与利用重点实验室昆明 650214 648366317@qq.com 
王定康 昆明学院生命科学与技术系 云南省高校特色生物资源开发与利用重点实验室昆明 650214 wdk117@163.com 
骆应梅 昆明学院生命科学与技术系 云南省高校特色生物资源开发与利用重点实验室昆明 650214 2459411875@qq.com 
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中文摘要:
      为明确滇池水体中藻类变化规律及营养盐对浮游藻类结构的影响,在滇池草海和外海共设10个采样点,于2013年5月至2015年4月,每月监测藻类变化及氮、磷含量。结果表明,草海在每年9月至来年2月,蓝藻、绿藻呈互为消长的变化趋势,硅藻生物量在8-10月和2-4月含量较高,变化范围5.81~44.80 mg/L;外海以蓝藻、绿藻为主,两种藻类在每年的11月至来年1月呈互为消长,而来年2种藻5-7月逐渐升高、10月开始又逐渐降低。草海和外海水体中的总磷均以在5-9月含量最高,变化范围分别为0.82~3.37 mg/L和 0.2~0.51 mg/L;总氮全年变化剧烈,草海总氮为2.85~11.7 mg/L,外海总氮为1.05~4.89 mg/L。总体上看,草海的氮、磷含量高于外海,说明草海富营养化水平高于外海;而水体中绿藻生物量高于蓝藻成为绝对优势藻种,且绿藻生物量远远高于外海,表明高氮、磷水体中绿藻比蓝藻有更强的利用优势,致使在超富营养化水体中蓝藻不占优势。滇池水体中氮磷比较低的月份,水体中蓝藻和绿藻共存;在高氮磷比的时间段,绿藻生长占优势,说明滇池水体中绿藻比蓝藻更适合高氮磷比的环境。
英文摘要:
      Nutrient levels have different effects on the growth and biomass of different algae species because the efficiencies of nitrogen and phosphorus utilization vary among species. These differences result in ecological relationships between algae species and drive the succession of planktonic algae communities. Dianchi Lake is the largest fresh water lake on the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau of Southwest China and has two basins, Caohai (10.8 km2) and Waihai (298.2 km2). How the interannual and seasonal dynamics of the algae community in Dianchi Lake change with nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, and the N/P ratio, is not presently known. To investigate the relationship of algal community dynamics with nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in Dianchi Lake, we monitored the biomass of cyanobacteria, green algae, diatoms and the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus on a monthly basis from May 2013 to April 2015. The spatial-temporal heterogeneity of nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in Dianchi Lake and correlation of nutrient level with succession of the planktonic algae community were then analyzed. Ten sampling sites (2 sites in Caohai and 8 sites in Waihai) were set for the investigation and, on the first day of each month, water samples were collected 20 cm below the surface at each site. The planktonic algae community was dominated by Cyanophyta and Chlorophyta in Caohai and dominance fluctuated between the two taxa from September to February. The biomass of Bacillariophyta in Caohai was high during the periods Autumn-October and February-April, ranging from 5.81 mg/L to 44.80 mg/L, but remained near zero in Waihai during the two-year investigation. Cyanophyta and Chlorophyta were also the dominant plankton taxa in Waihai, fluctuating in dominance from November to January. The biomass of Cyanophyta and Chlorophyta increased from May to July and decreased in October. Total phosphorous concentrations were highest in both Caohai and Waihai basins from May to September and the ranges in mean monthly concentrations were 0.82-3.37 mg/L in Caohai and 0.2-0.51 mg/L in Waihai. The monthly variations in total nitrogen were larger, with ranges of 2.85-11.7 mg/L in Caohai and 1.05-4.89 mg/L in Waihai. Nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations in Caohai were generally higher than in Waihai, indicating higher eutrophication in Caohai. The biomass of Chlorophyta in Caohai was higher than that of Cyanophyta and much higher than the biomass of Chlorophyta in Waihai, indicating that Chlorophyta grows better than cyanobacteria in waters high in nitrogen and phosphorus. Chlorophyta and Cyanophyta coexist in Dianchi Lake during periods of low N/P ratio, and Chlorophyta grow rapidly and become the dominant taxa during periods of high N/P ratio, indicating that Chlorophyta is more adaptable to waters with a high N/P ratio in Dianchi Lake.
侯秀丽,苑春刚,李学平,任迎春,王定康,骆应梅.2018.滇池氮磷浓度变化对蓝、绿、硅藻年际变化的影响[J].水生态学杂志,39(1):16-22.
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