体重和温度对草鱼摄食小浮萍的影响
Effects of Body Weight and Water Temperature on Consumption of Duckweed(Lemna minor)by Grass Carp(Ctenopharyngodon idella)
投稿时间:2016-03-16  修订日期:2018-01-24
中文关键词:小浮萍  草鱼  体重  温度  最大摄食量  最大摄食率
英文关键词:Lemna minor  grass carp  body weight  water temperature  maximum food consumption  maximum rate of food consumption
基金项目:国务院三峡办三峡后续科研工作项目“三峡水库小江生态恢复关键技术研究与示范”(2013HXKY2-3)
作者单位E-mail
张亚辉 华中农业大学水产学院武汉 430070 hzaunnzyr1990@163.com 
龚江 华中农业大学水产学院武汉 430070 843854193@qq.com 
梁杰锋 华中农业大学水产学院武汉 430070 1032503125@qq.com 
沈建忠 华中农业大学水产学院武汉 430070 jzhsh@mail.hzau.edu.cn 
马徐发 华中农业大学水产学院武汉 430070 175835723@qq.com 
胡莲 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室武汉 430079 hulian@mail.ihe.ac.cn 
万成炎 水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室武汉 430079 chywan@mail.ihe.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      研究草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idella)对浮萍的摄食能力及主要影响因素,为合理利用草鱼控制小江回水区浮萍暴发提供依据。草鱼(体重29.7 ~ 491.2g)取自红安县中海农业科技有限公司渔场,小浮萍种源采自重庆市云阳县高阳镇黄莲坝库湾。在试验室条件下研究了草鱼对小浮萍的最大摄食量、最大摄食率与体重和温度的关系。结果表明,在水温(25.82 ± 0.57)℃条件下,随着体重的增加(40.36~478.17g),草鱼的最大摄食量增大,但最大摄食率呈减小的趋势,两者与体重的相关关系分别为Cmax= 2.460W0.779,FRmax= 246.0W-0.221;水温(16.55~30.50℃)对草鱼的最大摄食量和最大摄食率的影响极显著(P<0.01),最大摄食量和最大摄食率与水温的回归方程分别为Cmax= 0.074T2.045,FRmax=0.164T1.940;建立的预测不同温度和体重条件下草鱼对小浮萍最大摄食率的模型为:FRmax=0.410T1.940W-0.221 。
英文摘要:
      Xiaojiang River is an important tributary of Three Gorges Reservoir and its backwater has become more eutrophic since impoundment, resulting in the frequent overgrowth of duckweed. The use of herbivorous fish, such as grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), is a safe and effective bio-control for duckweed. To assess the capability of grass carp for controlling duckweed and provide a reference for duckweed control by grass carp in Xiaojiang bay, we studied the effects of body weight and water temperature on the maximum consumption (Cmax) and maximum rate of consumption (FRmax) of duckweed under laboratorial conditions. The results were then used to develop a model for predicting maximum rate of food consumption by grass carp, given body weight and temperature. Duckweed collected from Xiaojiang bay of Three Gorges Reservoir was transplanted to indoor concrete ponds (winter) and outside ponds (summer) to provide duckweed for the study. Grass carp were acclimated for 30 days prior to testing and fed duckweed. Test fish were separated by weight into seven groups〔 (40.36±6.77) g, (86.63±7.26) g, (151.51±6.28) g, (250.07±5.62) g, (300.80±7.01) g, (388.58±8.37) g and (478.17±3.29g) 〕for testing at one temperature (25.82±0.57) ℃ and fish of similar weight (59.04±7.77) g were tested at five water temperatures (16.55, 20.12, 23.50, 26.99, 30.50℃) and all treatments were carried out in triplicate. The experiment was carried out in a circulating system, under the following conditions: dissolved oxygen, >5.0mg/L; ammonia nitrogen, <0.5mg/ L; nitrite, <0.2mg/ L; pH, (7.85±0.10) and a light-dark cycle of 16L:8D. During the experiment, consumption data for each trial was recorded and the final weight of test fish was measured, at 16 days for the weight treatments and at 14 days for the temperature treatments. Results show that maximum food consumption increased but maximum rate of food consumption decreased with increasing body weight at the same temperature (25.82±0.57) ℃. The correlation between maximum food consumption (g/(d?fish)) and body weight (g) was expressed as Cmax =2.460W0.779 (R2 = 0.990, P<0.01) and the relationship between maximum rate of food consumption (%/d) and body weight was FRmax = 246.0W-0.221 (R2 = 0.887, P<0.01). The effect of water temperature on Cmax and FRmax was highly significant (P<0.01). The relationship between Cmax and temperature (℃) was expressed by the regression equation, Cmax = 0.074T2.045 (R2 = 0.976, P<0.01) and, between FRmax and temperature, as FRmax =0.164T1.940 (R2 =0.976, P<0.01). The model for predicting the maximum rate of duckweed consumption by grass carp at a given body weight and temperature is FRmax=0.410T1.940W-0.221. In conclusion, grass carp can constrain outbreaks of duckweed. To achieve maximum duckweed control, the quantity and scale of released grass carp should be based on the water temperature during the duckweed outbreak period of Xiaojiang River.
张亚辉,龚江,梁杰锋,沈建忠,马徐发,胡莲,万成炎.2018.体重和温度对草鱼摄食小浮萍的影响[J].水生态学杂志,39(1):56-62.
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